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      “It is not an acceptable disease”: A qualitative study of HIV-related stigma and discrimination and impacts on health and wellbeing for people from ethnically diverse backgrounds in Australia

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          Abstract

          Background

          People from ethnically diverse backgrounds living with HIV are susceptible to adverse health and wellbeing outcomes, particularly as a consequence of HIV-related stigma and discrimination (HSD), though relatively little is known about experiences in Australia.

          Methods

          This paper reports on HSD in ethnically diverse communities in South Australia and impacts on health and wellbeing. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with 10 individuals living with HIV from ethnically diverse backgrounds, 14 ethnically diverse community leaders, and 50 service providers. Data were analysed thematically.

          Results

          Findings indicated that HIV is a highly stigmatised condition in ethnically diverse communities due to fear of moral judgment and social isolation, and was experienced at the intersections of gender, sexual orientation, religion, culture, and immigration status. Experiences of HSD were damaging to health and wellbeing through non-disclosure, reduced social support, delayed testing, service access barriers, impacts on treatment adherence, and directly to mental health.

          Conclusions

          Actions addressing the impacts of HSD on people from ethnically diverse backgrounds are crucial.

          Supplementary Information

          The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12889-021-10679-y.

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          Most cited references66

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          Qualitative data analysis for applied policy research

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            Conceptualizing Stigma

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              Intersectionality and Feminist Politics

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                anna.ziersch@flinders.edu.au
                moira.walsh@flinders.edu.au
                melanie.baak@unisa.edu.au
                georgia.rowley@flinders.edu.au
                E.Oudih@rasa.org.au
                lillian.mwanri@flinders.edu.au
                Journal
                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2458
                23 April 2021
                23 April 2021
                2021
                : 21
                : 779
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.1014.4, ISNI 0000 0004 0367 2697, College of Medicine and Public Health, , Flinders University, ; Adelaide, Australia
                [2 ]GRID grid.1026.5, ISNI 0000 0000 8994 5086, School of Education, , University of South Australia, ; Adelaide, Australia
                [3 ]GRID grid.1014.4, ISNI 0000 0004 0367 2697, College of Nursing and Health Sciences, , Flinders University, ; Adelaide, Australia
                [4 ]Relationships Australia South Australia, Adelaide, Australia
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6600-2568
                Article
                10679
                10.1186/s12889-021-10679-y
                8063420
                33892683
                f8e4e324-c036-4017-8af3-93cb52ff1248
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                History
                : 3 August 2020
                : 22 March 2021
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001785, Flinders University;
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Public health
                hiv,stigma,discrimination,migrant,refugee,health,ethnically diverse,cald,australia
                Public health
                hiv, stigma, discrimination, migrant, refugee, health, ethnically diverse, cald, australia

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