We report a possible spontaneous case of oxalate nephrosis in an African fruit bat ( Epomops franqueti), incidentally observed in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria, in an anatomical and serological survey of the species. Wild caught bats underwent sedation, intracardial perfusion, necropsy and histopathology. All 15 wild-caught African fruit bats were apparently healthy. However, light microscopy revealed mild oligofocal tubulonephrosis with intraluminal deposition of polarizing crystals interpreted as subclinical oxalate nephrosis in one case. In summary, we suggest a dietary aetiology, based on seasonal availability of high ascorbic acid or oxalate containing fruits. However, exposure to anthropogenic contaminants cannot be completely ruled out.