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      Targeted Amplicon Sequencing (TAS): A Scalable Next-Gen Approach to Multilocus, Multitaxa Phylogenetics

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          Abstract

          Next-gen sequencing technologies have revolutionized data collection in genetic studies and advanced genome biology to novel frontiers. However, to date, next-gen technologies have been used principally for whole genome sequencing and transcriptome sequencing. Yet many questions in population genetics and systematics rely on sequencing specific genes of known function or diversity levels. Here, we describe a targeted amplicon sequencing (TAS) approach capitalizing on next-gen capacity to sequence large numbers of targeted gene regions from a large number of samples. Our TAS approach is easily scalable, simple in execution, neither time-nor labor-intensive, relatively inexpensive, and can be applied to a broad diversity of organisms and/or genes. Our TAS approach includes a bioinformatic application, BarcodeCrucher, to take raw next-gen sequence reads and perform quality control checks and convert the data into FASTA format organized by gene and sample, ready for phylogenetic analyses. We demonstrate our approach by sequencing targeted genes of known phylogenetic utility to estimate a phylogeny for the Pancrustacea. We generated data from 44 taxa using 68 different 10-bp multiplexing identifiers. The overall quality of data produced was robust and was informative for phylogeny estimation. The potential for this method to produce copious amounts of data from a single 454 plate (e.g., 325 taxa for 24 loci) significantly reduces sequencing expenses incurred from traditional Sanger sequencing. We further discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this method, while offering suggestions to enhance the approach.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Improved tools for biological sequence comparison.

          We have developed three computer programs for comparisons of protein and DNA sequences. They can be used to search sequence data bases, evaluate similarity scores, and identify periodic structures based on local sequence similarity. The FASTA program is a more sensitive derivative of the FASTP program, which can be used to search protein or DNA sequence data bases and can compare a protein sequence to a DNA sequence data base by translating the DNA data base as it is searched. FASTA includes an additional step in the calculation of the initial pairwise similarity score that allows multiple regions of similarity to be joined to increase the score of related sequences. The RDF2 program can be used to evaluate the significance of similarity scores using a shuffling method that preserves local sequence composition. The LFASTA program can display all the regions of local similarity between two sequences with scores greater than a threshold, using the same scoring parameters and a similar alignment algorithm; these local similarities can be displayed as a "graphic matrix" plot or as individual alignments. In addition, these programs have been generalized to allow comparison of DNA or protein sequences based on a variety of alternative scoring matrices.
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            Use of DNA barcodes to identify flowering plants.

            Methods for identifying species by using short orthologous DNA sequences, known as "DNA barcodes," have been proposed and initiated to facilitate biodiversity studies, identify juveniles, associate sexes, and enhance forensic analyses. The cytochrome c oxidase 1 sequence, which has been found to be widely applicable in animal barcoding, is not appropriate for most species of plants because of a much slower rate of cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene evolution in higher plants than in animals. We therefore propose the nuclear internal transcribed spacer region and the plastid trnH-psbA intergenic spacer as potentially usable DNA regions for applying barcoding to flowering plants. The internal transcribed spacer is the most commonly sequenced locus used in plant phylogenetic investigations at the species level and shows high levels of interspecific divergence. The trnH-psbA spacer, although short ( approximately 450-bp), is the most variable plastid region in angiosperms and is easily amplified across a broad range of land plants. Comparison of the total plastid genomes of tobacco and deadly nightshade enhanced with trials on widely divergent angiosperm taxa, including closely related species in seven plant families and a group of species sampled from a local flora encompassing 50 plant families (for a total of 99 species, 80 genera, and 53 families), suggest that the sequences in this pair of loci have the potential to discriminate among the largest number of plant species for barcoding purposes.
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              Resequencing of 31 wild and cultivated soybean genomes identifies patterns of genetic diversity and selection.

              We report a large-scale analysis of the patterns of genome-wide genetic variation in soybeans. We re-sequenced a total of 17 wild and 14 cultivated soybean genomes to an average of approximately ×5 depth and >90% coverage using the Illumina Genome Analyzer II platform. We compared the patterns of genetic variation between wild and cultivated soybeans and identified higher allelic diversity in wild soybeans. We identified a high level of linkage disequilibrium in the soybean genome, suggesting that marker-assisted breeding of soybean will be less challenging than map-based cloning. We report linkage disequilibrium block location and distribution, and we identified a set of 205,614 tag SNPs that may be useful for QTL mapping and association studies. The data here provide a valuable resource for the analysis of wild soybeans and to facilitate future breeding and quantitative trait analysis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Genome Biol Evol
                gbe
                gbe
                Genome Biology and Evolution
                Oxford University Press
                1759-6653
                2011
                13 October 2011
                2011
                13 October 2011
                : 3
                : 1312-1323
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biology, Brigham Young University
                [2 ]Department of Plant and Wildlife Sciences, Brigham Young University
                [3 ]Computer Science Department, Brigham Young University
                [4 ]Department of Molecular Biology, University of Wyoming
                [5 ]DNA Sequencing Center, Brigham Young University
                [6 ]Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: E-mail: seth.bybee@ 123456gmail.com .

                Associate editor: Bill Martin

                Article
                10.1093/gbe/evr106
                3236605
                22002916
                © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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