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      Hybrid Label-Free Molecular Microscopies for Simultaneous Visualization of Changes in Cell Wall Polysaccharides of Peach at Single- and Multiple-Cell Levels during Postharvest Storage


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          Softening of fruit during the postharvest storage, which is mainly associated with both compositional and spatial changes of polysaccharides within cell wall, affects the texture and quality of fruit. Current research on the fruit softening mechanism lacks an understanding of the overall softening at the cell level. The objective of this work was to investigate the change in the spatial distribution of cell wall polysaccharides in peach flesh cells at both single- and multiple-cell levels in a label-free way during the postharvest storage. Nonmelting peaches ( Prunus persica L. Batsch cv.”Zhonghuashoutao”) at commercial maturity were stored at 0 °C and 20 °C. Firmness measurement and chemical analysis were performed at each storage time. In addition, three molecular imaging techniques, namely confocal Raman microspectroscopy (CRM), Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM), and stimulated Raman scattering microscopy (SRS) were used to visualize changes in the spatial distribution of cell wall polysaccharides of peach fruit in a label-free way during the postharvest storage. The combination of CRM and FTIRM provided complementary spectral information to visualize the spatial changes of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin in the cell wall of peach flesh during softening at the single-cell level, and found that the cell wall polysaccharides tended to be concentrated in the cell corner of parenchymal cells at the late stage. Furthermore, SRS, which is an ultrafast Raman imaging technique (approximately three or four orders of magnitude faster than CRM), was used for high-throughput cell wall phenotypes measurement. Different degradation degrees of parenchymal cells during fruit softening were found based on the gray-scale statistical analysis of SRS data. In general, cell wall polysaccharides decreased during softening and tended to be concentrated in the cell corner for most parenchymal cells at the late stage, but there were also some cells not in line with the whole softening trends. The results show that there were differences in the content and spatial changes of cell wall polysaccharides among parenchymal cells of peach fruit during the softening process, and the hybrid use of CRM, FTIRM, and SRS is a promising method for simultaneous visualization of changes in cell wall polysaccharides of peach.

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          Hemicelluloses are polysaccharides in plant cell walls that have beta-(1-->4)-linked backbones with an equatorial configuration. Hemicelluloses include xyloglucans, xylans, mannans and glucomannans, and beta-(1-->3,1-->4)-glucans. These types of hemicelluloses are present in the cell walls of all terrestrial plants, except for beta-(1-->3,1-->4)-glucans, which are restricted to Poales and a few other groups. The detailed structure of the hemicelluloses and their abundance vary widely between different species and cell types. The most important biological role of hemicelluloses is their contribution to strengthening the cell wall by interaction with cellulose and, in some walls, with lignin. These features are discussed in relation to widely accepted models of the primary wall. Hemicelluloses are synthesized by glycosyltransferases located in the Golgi membranes. Many glycosyltransferases needed for biosynthesis of xyloglucans and mannans are known. In contrast, the biosynthesis of xylans and beta-(1-->3,1-->4)-glucans remains very elusive, and recent studies have led to more questions than answers.
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            Biochemical bases of appearance and texture changes in fresh-cut fruit and vegetables

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              Composition, properties and health benefits of indigestible carbohydrate polymers as dietary fiber: a review.

              In last few decades, indigestible carbohydrates as dietary fiber have attracted interest of food scientists and technologists due to its several physiological benefits. Dietary fibers are generally of two types based on their solubility, i.e. soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. Significant physicochemical properties of dietary fiber include solubility, viscosity, water holding capacity, bulking and fermentability. Some important dietary fibers are celluloses, hemicelluloses, hydrocolloids, resistant starches and non-digestible oligosaccharides. Inclusion of these fibers in daily diet imparts several health benefits such as prevention or reduction of bowel disorders, and decrease risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                20 March 2020
                March 2020
                : 9
                : 3
                : 761
                [1 ]College of Agriculture & Biotechnology/Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Integrative Biology/The State Agriculture Ministry Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth, Development and Quality Improvement, Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou 310058, China; 11816084@ 123456zju.edu.cn (W.H.); 21516049@ 123456zju.edu.cn (Y.N.); nnz916@ 123456zju.edu.cn (N.Z.); zcq1236@ 123456zju.edu.cn (C.Z.); akun@ 123456zju.edu.cn (K.C.)
                [2 ]State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Human Phenome Institute, Multiscale Research Institute of Complex Systems, Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (Ministry of Education), Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China; 18110190062@ 123456fudan.edu.cn (Y.Y.); Minbiaoj@ 123456fudan.edu.cn (M.J.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: di_wu@ 123456zju.edu.cn or china.di.wu@ 123456gmail.com ; Tel.: +86-571-8898-2226

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Author information
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 09 January 2020
                : 18 March 2020

                peach,softening,cell wall,polysaccharides,confocal raman microspectroscopy,fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy,stimulated raman scattering microscopy


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