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Anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibodies—basiliximab and daclizumab—for the prevention of acute rejection in renal transplantation

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      Abstract

      The use of antibody induction after kidney transplantation has increased from 25% to 63% in the past decade and roughly one half of the induction agent used is anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibody (IL-2RA, ie, basiliximab or daclizumab). When combined with calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based immunosuppression, IL-2RAs have been shown to reduce the incidence of acute rejection, one of the predictors of poor graft survival, without increasing risks of infections and malignancies in kidney transplantation. For low-immunological-risk patients, IL-2RAs, as compared with lymphocyte-depleting antibodies, are equally efficacious and have better safety profiles. For high-risk patients, however, IL-2RAs may be inferior to lymphocyte-depleting antibodies for the prophylaxis of acute rejection. In an effort to reduce toxicities of other immunosuppressive medications without increasing the risk of acute rejection and chronic graft loss, IL-2RAs have often been combined with steroid- and CNI-sparing immunosuppression protocols. More data support the benefits of early steroid withdrawal with IL-2RA in low-risk patients, but preferred induction therapy for high-risk patients has yet to be determined. Although CNI-sparing protocols with IL-2RA may preserve renal function and improve long-term survival in selected patients, further studies are needed to identify those who benefit most from this strategy.

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      Most cited references 98

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      Reduced exposure to calcineurin inhibitors in renal transplantation.

      Immunosuppressive regimens with the fewest possible toxic effects are desirable for transplant recipients. This study evaluated the efficacy and relative toxic effects of four immunosuppressive regimens. We randomly assigned 1645 renal-transplant recipients to receive standard-dose cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and corticosteroids, or daclizumab induction, mycophenolate mofetil, and corticosteroids in combination with low-dose cyclosporine, low-dose tacrolimus, or low-dose sirolimus. The primary end point was the estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR), as calculated by the Cockcroft-Gault formula, 12 months after transplantation. Secondary end points included acute rejection and allograft survival. The mean calculated GFR was higher in patients receiving low-dose tacrolimus (65.4 ml per minute) than in the other three groups (range, 56.7 to 59.4 ml per minute). The rate of biopsy-proven acute rejection was lower in patients receiving low-dose tacrolimus (12.3%) than in those receiving standard-dose cyclosporine (25.8%), low-dose cyclosporine (24.0%), or low-dose sirolimus (37.2%). Allograft survival differed significantly among the four groups (P=0.02) and was highest in the low-dose tacrolimus group (94.2%), followed by the low-dose cyclosporine group (93.1%), the standard-dose cyclosporine group (89.3%), and the low-dose sirolimus group (89.3%). Serious adverse events were more common in the low-dose sirolimus group than in the other groups (53.2% vs. a range of 43.4 to 44.3%), although a similar proportion of patients in each group had at least one adverse event during treatment (86.3 to 90.5%). A regimen of daclizumab, mycophenolate mofetil, and corticosteroids in combination with low-dose tacrolimus may be advantageous for renal function, allograft survival, and acute rejection rates, as compared with regimens containing daclizumab induction plus either low-dose cyclosporine or low-dose sirolimus or with standard-dose cyclosporine without induction. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00231764 [ClinicalTrials.gov].). Copyright 2007 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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        Improved graft survival after renal transplantation in the United States, 1988 to 1996.

        The introduction of cyclosporine has resulted in improvement in the short-term outcome of renal transplantation, but its effect on the long-term survival of kidney transplants is not known. We analyzed the influence of demographic characteristics (age, sex, and race), transplant-related variables (living or cadaveric donor, panel-reactive antibody titer, extent of HLA matching, and cold-ischemia time), and post-transplantation variables (presence or absence of acute rejection, delayed graft function, and therapy with mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus) on graft survival for all 93,934 renal transplantations performed in the United States between 1988 and 1996. A regression analysis adjusted for these variables was used to estimate the risk of graft failure within the first year and more than one year after transplantation. From 1988 to 1996, the one-year survival rate for grafts from living donors increased from 88.8 to 93.9 percent, and the rate for cadaveric grafts increased from 75.7 to 87.7 percent. The half-life for grafts from living donors increased steadily from 12.7 to 21.6 years, and that for cadaveric grafts increased from 7.9 to 13.8 years. After censoring of data for patients who died with functioning grafts, the half-life for grafts from living donors increased from 16.9 years to 35.9 years, and that for cadaveric grafts increased from 11.0 years to 19.5 years. The average yearly reduction in the relative hazard of graft failure after one year was 4.2 percent for all recipients (P<0.001), 0.4 percent for those who had acute rejection (P=0.57), and 6.3 percent for those who did not have acute rejection (P<0.001). Since 1988, there has been a substantial increase in short-term and long-term survival of kidney grafts from both living and cadaveric donors.
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          Costimulation blockade with belatacept in renal transplantation.

          Renal transplantation is the standard of care for patients with end-stage renal disease. Although maintenance immunosuppression with calcineurin inhibitors yields excellent one-year survival, it is associated over the long term with high rates of death and graft loss, owing in part to the adverse renal, cardiovascular, and metabolic effects of these agents. The use of potentially less toxic agents, such as belatacept, a selective blocker of T-cell activation, may improve outcomes. We randomly assigned renal-transplant recipients to receive an intensive or a less-intensive regimen of belatacept or cyclosporine. All patients received induction therapy with basiliximab, mycophenolate mofetil, and corticosteroids. The primary objective was to demonstrate the noninferiority of belatacept over cyclosporine in the incidence of acute rejection at six months (with an upper bound of the 95 percent confidence interval around the treatment difference of less than 20 percent). At six months, the incidence of acute rejection was similar among the groups: 7 percent for intensive belatacept, 6 percent for less-intensive belatacept, and 8 percent for cyclosporine. At 12 months, the glomerular filtration rate was significantly higher with both intensive and less-intensive belatacept than it was with cyclosporine (66.3, 62.1, and 53.5 ml per minute per 1.73 m2, respectively), and chronic allograft nephropathy was less common with both regimens of belatacept than with cyclosporine (29 percent, 20 percent, and 44 percent, respectively). Lipid levels and blood-pressure values were similar or slightly lower in the belatacept groups, despite the greater use of lipid-lowering and antihypertensive medications in the cyclosporine group. Belatacept, an investigational selective costimulation blocker, did not appear to be inferior to cyclosporine as a means of preventing acute rejection after renal transplantation. Belatacept may preserve the glomerular filtration rate and reduce the rate of chronic allograft nephropathy. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            DeWitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, Division of Kidney and Pancreas Transplantation, The Lillian Jean Kaplan Renal Transplant Center, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA
            Author notes
            Correspondence: Gaetano Ciancio, Department of Surgery, Division of Transplantation, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Post Office Box 012440 (R-440), Miami, FL 33101, USA, Tel +1 305 355 5111, Email gciancio@123456med.miami.edu
            Journal
            Biologics
            Biologics: Targets & Therapy
            Biologics : Targets & Therapy
            Dove Medical Press
            1177-5475
            1177-5491
            2009
            2009
            13 July 2009
            : 3
            : 319-336
            2726067
            19707418
            btt-3-319
            © 2009 Sageshima et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd

            This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

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