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      Element- and charge-state-resolved ion energies in the cathodic arc plasma from composite AlCr cathodes in argon, nitrogen and oxygen atmospheres

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          Abstract

          The energy distribution functions of ions in the cathodic arc plasma using composite AlCr cathodes were measured as a function of the background gas pressure in the range 0.5 to 3.5 Pa for different cathode compositions and gas atmospheres. The most abundant aluminium ions were Al + regardless of the background gas species, whereas Cr 2+ ions were dominating in Ar and N 2 and Cr + in O 2 atmospheres. The energy distributions of the aluminium and chromium ions typically consisted of a high-energy fraction due to acceleration in the expanding plasma plume from the cathode spot and thermalised ions that were subjected to collisions in the plasma cloud. The fraction of the latter increased with increasing background gas pressure. Atomic nitrogen and oxygen ions showed similar energy distributions as the aluminium and chromium ions, whereas the argon and molecular nitrogen and oxygen ions were formed at greater distance from the cathode spot and thus less subject to accelerating gradients. In addition to the positively charged metal and gas ions, negatively charged oxygen and oxygen-containing ions were observed in O 2 atmosphere. The obtained results are intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the ion energies and charge states in the arc plasma of AlCr composite cathodes in different gas atmospheres as such plasmas are frequently used to deposit thin films and coatings.

          Highlights

          • A comprehensive overview of ion energies in arc plasmas from AlCr composite cathodes is provided.

          • Multiply charged aluminium and chromium ions were observed.

          • High-energy tails were found in the distributions of aluminium and chromium as well as atomic nitrogen and oxygen ions.

          • The fraction of thermalised ions increased with increasing background gas pressure.

          • Negatively charged oxygen ions have energies typically up to 50 eV.

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          Most cited references39

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          Fabrication of all diamond scanning probes for nanoscale magnetometry

          The electronic spin of the nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond forms an atomically sized, highly sensitive sensor for magnetic fields. To harness the full potential of individual NV centers for sensing with high sensitivity and nanoscale spatial resolution, NV centers have to be incorporated into scanning probe structures enabling controlled scanning in close proximity to the sample surface. Here, we present an optimized procedure to fabricate single-crystal, all-diamond scanning probes starting from commercially available diamond and show a highly efficient and robust approach for integrating these devices in a generic atomic force microscope. Our scanning probes consisting of a scanning nanopillar (200 nm diameter, \(1-2\,\mu\)m length) on a thin (\(< 1\mu\)m) cantilever structure, enable efficient light extraction from diamond in combination with a high magnetic field sensitivity (\(\mathrm{\eta_{AC}}\approx50\pm20\,\mathrm{nT}/\sqrt{\mathrm{Hz}}\)). As a first application of our scanning probes, we image the magnetic stray field of a single Ni nanorod. We show that this stray field can be approximated by a single dipole and estimate the NV-to-sample distance to a few tens of nanometer, which sets the achievable resolution of our scanning probes.
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            Influence of moisture on device characteristics of polythiophene-based field-effect transistors

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              Infrared multiphoton dissociation tandem charge detection-mass spectrometry of single megadalton electrosprayed ions.

              This work presents the implementation of tandem mass spectrometry for experiments on single electrosprayed ions from compounds of megadalton (MDa) molecular weight, using two charge detection devices. The first mass spectrometry stage (first charge detection device) combined with an ion gate allows both mass-to-charge ratio and charge selections of the megadalton ion of interest. The second stage is based on an electrostatic ion trap and consists of an image charge detection tube mounted between two ion mirrors. Single MDa ions can be stored for several dozen milliseconds. During the trapping time, single ions can be irradiated by a continuous wavelength CO(2) laser. We observe stepwise changes in the charge of a single trapped ion owing to multiphoton activation. Illustration of infrared multiphoton dissociation tandem mass spectrometry are given for single megadalton ions of poly(ethylene oxide)s and DNAs.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Surf Coat Technol
                Surf Coat Technol
                Surface & Coatings Technology
                Elsevier Sequoia
                0257-8972
                1879-3347
                25 June 2015
                25 June 2015
                : 272
                : 309-321
                Affiliations
                [a ]Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, 8700 Leoben, Austria
                [b ]PLANSEE Composite Materials GmbH, Siebenbürgerstrasse 23, 86983 Lechbruck am See, Germany
                [c ]Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author at: Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, 8700 Leoben, Austria. robert.franz@ 123456unileoben.ac.at
                Article
                S0257-8972(15)00285-6
                10.1016/j.surfcoat.2015.03.047
                4456065
                f8fe22dd-79ec-47c2-9bcc-4825e9f85f46
                © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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