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      Differential Bacteriophage Efficacy in Controlling Salmonella in Cattle Hide and Soil Models

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          Abstract

          Asymptomatic Salmonella carriage in beef cattle is a food safety concern and the beef feedlot environment and cattle hides are reservoirs of this pathogen. Bacteriophages present an attractive non-antibiotic strategy for control of Salmonella in beef. In this study, four diverse and genetically unrelated Salmonella phages, Sergei, Season12, Sw2, and Munch, were characterized and tested alone and in combination for their ability to control Salmonella in cattle hide and soil systems, which are relevant models for Salmonella control in beef production. Phage Sergei is a member of the genus Sashavirus, phage Season12 was identified as a member of the Chivirus genus, Sw2 was identified as a member of the T5-like Epseptimavirus genus, and Munch was found to be a novel “jumbo” myovirus. Observed pathogen reductions in the model systems ranged from 0.50 to 1.75 log 10 CFU/cm 2 in hides and from 0.53 to 1.38 log 10 CFU/g in soil, with phages Sergei and Sw2 producing greater reductions (∼1 log 10 CFU/cm 2 or CFU/g) than Season12 and Munch. These findings are in accordance with previous observations of phage virulence, suggesting the simple ability of a phage to form plaques on a bacterial strain is not a strong indicator of antimicrobial activity, but performance in liquid culture assays provides a better predictor. The antimicrobial efficacies of phage treatments were found to be phage-specific across model systems, implying that a phage capable of achieving bacterial reduction in one model is more likely to perform well in another. Phage combinations did not produce significantly greater efficacy than single phages even after 24 h in the soil model, and phage-insensitive colonies were not isolated from treated samples, suggesting that the emergence of phage resistance was not a major factor limiting efficacy in this system.

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          Most cited references 84

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          NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis

          For the past twenty five years the NIH family of imaging software, NIH Image and ImageJ have been pioneers as open tools for scientific image analysis. We discuss the origins, challenges and solutions of these two programs, and how their history can serve to advise and inform other software projects.
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            SPAdes: a new genome assembly algorithm and its applications to single-cell sequencing.

            The lion's share of bacteria in various environments cannot be cloned in the laboratory and thus cannot be sequenced using existing technologies. A major goal of single-cell genomics is to complement gene-centric metagenomic data with whole-genome assemblies of uncultivated organisms. Assembly of single-cell data is challenging because of highly non-uniform read coverage as well as elevated levels of sequencing errors and chimeric reads. We describe SPAdes, a new assembler for both single-cell and standard (multicell) assembly, and demonstrate that it improves on the recently released E+V-SC assembler (specialized for single-cell data) and on popular assemblers Velvet and SoapDeNovo (for multicell data). SPAdes generates single-cell assemblies, providing information about genomes of uncultivatable bacteria that vastly exceeds what may be obtained via traditional metagenomics studies. SPAdes is available online ( http://bioinf.spbau.ru/spades ). It is distributed as open source software.
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              BLAST+: architecture and applications

              Background Sequence similarity searching is a very important bioinformatics task. While Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) outperforms exact methods through its use of heuristics, the speed of the current BLAST software is suboptimal for very long queries or database sequences. There are also some shortcomings in the user-interface of the current command-line applications. Results We describe features and improvements of rewritten BLAST software and introduce new command-line applications. Long query sequences are broken into chunks for processing, in some cases leading to dramatically shorter run times. For long database sequences, it is possible to retrieve only the relevant parts of the sequence, reducing CPU time and memory usage for searches of short queries against databases of contigs or chromosomes. The program can now retrieve masking information for database sequences from the BLAST databases. A new modular software library can now access subject sequence data from arbitrary data sources. We introduce several new features, including strategy files that allow a user to save and reuse their favorite set of options. The strategy files can be uploaded to and downloaded from the NCBI BLAST web site. Conclusion The new BLAST command-line applications, compared to the current BLAST tools, demonstrate substantial speed improvements for long queries as well as chromosome length database sequences. We have also improved the user interface of the command-line applications.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-302X
                28 June 2021
                2021
                : 12
                Affiliations
                1Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University , College Station, TX, United States
                2Center for Phage Technology, Texas A&M University , College Station, TX, United States
                3Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Texas A&M University , College Station, TX, United States
                Author notes

                Edited by: Krishna Mohan Poluri, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India

                Reviewed by: Andrea Isabel Moreno Switt, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile; Hany Anany, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC), Canada

                *Correspondence: Jason J. Gill, jason.gill@ 123456tamu.edu

                This article was submitted to Antimicrobials, Resistance and Chemotherapy, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

                Article
                10.3389/fmicb.2021.657524
                8273493
                34262535
                Copyright © 2021 Xie, Thompson, O’Leary, Crosby, Nguyen, Liu and Gill.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 85, Pages: 13, Words: 0
                Funding
                Funded by: Division of Biological Infrastructure 10.13039/100000153
                Funded by: National Cattlemen’s Beef Association 10.13039/100016537
                Categories
                Microbiology
                Original Research

                Microbiology & Virology

                bacteriophage, salmonella, food safety, antimicrobials, beef cattle

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