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      Zika Virus Outside Africa

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          Abstract

          This should be considered an emerging pathogen.

          Abstract

          Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In 2007 ZIKV caused an outbreak of relatively mild disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis on Yap Island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. This was the first time that ZIKV was detected outside of Africa and Asia. The history, transmission dynamics, virology, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the possibility for diagnostic confusion between ZIKV illness and dengue.The emergence of ZIKV outside of its previously known geographic range should prompt awareness of the potential for ZIKV to spread to other Pacific islands and the Americas.

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          Most cited references29

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          Zika virus: a report on three cases of human infection during an epidemic of jaundice in Nigeria.

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            Phylogeny of the genus Flavivirus.

            We undertook a comprehensive phylogenetic study to establish the genetic relationship among the viruses of the genus Flavivirus and to compare the classification based on molecular phylogeny with the existing serologic method. By using a combination of quantitative definitions (bootstrap support level and the pairwise nucleotide sequence identity), the viruses could be classified into clusters, clades, and species. Our phylogenetic study revealed for the first time that from the putative ancestor two branches, non-vector and vector-borne virus clusters, evolved and from the latter cluster emerged tick-borne and mosquito-borne virus clusters. Provided that the theory of arthropod association being an acquired trait was correct, pairwise nucleotide sequence identity among these three clusters provided supporting data for a possibility that the non-vector cluster evolved first, followed by the separation of tick-borne and mosquito-borne virus clusters in that order. Clades established in our study correlated significantly with existing antigenic complexes. We also resolved many of the past taxonomic problems by establishing phylogenetic relationships of the antigenically unclassified viruses with the well-established viruses and by identifying synonymous viruses.
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              Isolation of Zika virus from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in Malaysia.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Emerg Infect Dis
                EID
                Emerging Infectious Diseases
                Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
                1080-6040
                1080-6059
                September 2009
                : 15
                : 9
                : 1347-1350
                Affiliations
                [1]Barcelona Centre for International Health Research, Barcelona, Spain
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Edward B. Hayes, Barcelona Centre for International Health Research, Rosello 132, Barcelona 08037, Spain; email: ned.hayes@cresib.cat
                Article
                09-0442
                10.3201/eid1509.090442
                2819875
                19788800
                f90dbddc-dd89-42a8-a126-7af67245018e
                Categories
                Synopsis

                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                zika virus,transmission,virology,synopsis,africa,viruses,flavivirus,mosquito
                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                zika virus, transmission, virology, synopsis, africa, viruses, flavivirus, mosquito

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