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      Dapagliflozin for the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a review of the literature

      1 , 2

      Drug Design, Development and Therapy

      Dove Medical Press

      diabetes, dapagliflozin, SGLT2, SGLT2 inhibitor, review

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          Abstract

          Objective

          Dapagliflozin was the first drug in a class of therapies that took a new approach to glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D). It is an inhibitor of the sodium glucose cotransporter, resident in the proximal nephron, which is responsible for the recovery of filtered glucose back into circulation. Inhibiting this cotransporter reduces glucose recovery, increases glucose excretion, and reduces hyperglycemia. Here, we review some of the literature relating to the action, efficacy, and clinical use of dapagliflozin.

          Materials and methods

          A Medline search was conducted within date, animal, and language limits, and relevant papers were selected for review. Conference proceedings were reviewed to obtain up-to-date literature on this drug. Clinical trial websites were reviewed for ongoing studies.

          Results

          On average, treatment with dapagliflozin results in improvement in glycated hemoglobin by 0.50%, fasting plasma glucose by 1 mmol/L, weight by 2 kg, body mass index by 1.1%, and systolic/diastolic blood pressure by 4/2 mmHg over 24–52 weeks. The weight benefit is greater when used in association with sulfonylureas. It is generally well tolerated, but comes with an increased risk of genitourinary and urinary tract infections. In addition, it is associated with reversible changes to renal function that need to be explored. Early reports of an association with cancer also need to be carefully monitored.

          Conclusion

          Dapagliflozin is a useful therapy for adult patients with T2D. It also holds potential for a broader range of patients with T2D (such as the elderly and pediatric populations), as well as those with other forms of diabetes, such as type 1 diabetes. While longer-term outcome studies of safety and efficacy are awaited, dapagliflozin forms a very useful and welcome addition to our armamentarium for managing patients with T2D.

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          Most cited references 87

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          Effects of dapagliflozin on body weight, total fat mass, and regional adipose tissue distribution in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with inadequate glycemic control on metformin.

          Dapagliflozin, a selective sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, reduces hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by increasing urinary glucose excretion, and weight loss is a consistent associated finding. Our objectives were to confirm weight loss with dapagliflozin and establish through body composition measurements whether weight loss is accounted for by changes in fat or fluid components. This was a 24-wk, international, multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with ongoing 78-wk site- and patient-blinded extension period at 40 sites in five countries. Included were 182 patients with T2DM (mean values: women 63.3 and men 58.6 yr of age; hemoglobin A1c 7.17%, body mass index 31.9 kg/m2, and body weight 91.5 kg) inadequately controlled on metformin. Dapagliflozin 10 mg/d or placebo was added to open-label metformin for 24 wk. Primary endpoint was total body weight (TBW) change from baseline at wk 24. Key secondary endpoints were waist circumference and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry total-body fat mass (FM) changes from baseline at wk 24, and patient proportion achieving body weight reduction of at least 5% at wk 24. In a subset of patients, magnetic resonance assessment of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and sc adipose tissue (SAT) volume and hepatic lipid content were also evaluated. At wk 24, placebo-corrected changes with dapagliflozin were as follows: TBW, -2.08 kg [95% confidence interval (CI)=-2.84 to -1.31; P<0.0001]; waist circumference, -1.52 cm (95% CI=-2.74 to -0.31; P=0.0143); FM, -1.48 kg (95% CI=-2.22 to -0.74; P=0.0001); proportion of patients achieving weight reduction of at least 5%, +26.2% (95% CI=15.5 to 36.7; P<0.0001); VAT, -258.4 cm3 (95% CI=-448.1 to -68.6; nominal P=0.0084); SAT, -184.9 cm3 (95% CI=-359.7 to -10.1; nominal P=0.0385). In the dapagliflozin vs. placebo groups, respectively, serious adverse events were reported in 6.6 vs. 1.1%; events suggestive of vulvovaginitis, balanitis, and related genital infection in 3.3 vs. 0%; and lower urinary tract infections in 6.6 vs. 2.2%. Dapagliflozin reduces TBW, predominantly by reducing FM, VAT and SAT in T2DM inadequately controlled with metformin.
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            Global guideline for type 2 diabetes.

              (2014)
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              Sodium-Glucose Cotransport Inhibition With Dapagliflozin in Type 2 Diabetes

              OBJECTIVE Dapagliflozin, a novel inhibitor of renal sodium-glucose cotransporter 2, allows an insulin-independent approach to improve type 2 diabetes hyperglycemia. In this multiple-dose study we evaluated the safety and efficacy of dapagliflozin in type 2 diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Type 2 diabetic patients were randomly assigned to one of five dapagliflozin doses, metformin XR, or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary objective was to compare mean change from baseline in A1C. Other objectives included comparison of changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), weight, adverse events, and laboratory measurements. RESULTS After 12 weeks, dapagliflozin induced moderate glucosuria (52–85 g urinary glucose/day) and demonstrated significant glycemic improvements versus placebo (ΔA1C −0.55 to −0.90% and ΔFPG −16 to −31 mg/dl). Weight loss change versus placebo was −1.3 to −2.0 kg. There was no change in renal function. Serum uric acid decreased, serum magnesium increased, serum phosphate increased at higher doses, and dose-related 24-h urine volume and hematocrit increased, all of small magnitude. Treatment-emergent adverse events were similar across all groups. CONCLUSIONS Dapagliflozin improved hyperglycemia and facilitates weight loss in type 2 diabetic patients by inducing controlled glucosuria with urinary loss of ∼200–300 kcal/day. Dapagliflozin treatment demonstrated no persistent, clinically significant osmolarity, volume, or renal status changes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2014
                10 December 2014
                : 8
                : 2493-2505
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Diabetes, University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK
                [2 ]School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Mujahid Saeed, Department of Diabetes, Fifth floor, Diabetes Centre, Nuffield House, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, West Midlands B15 2WB, UK, Email mujahid.saeed@ 123456uhb.nhs.uk
                Article
                dddt-8-2493
                10.2147/DDDT.S50963
                4267514
                25525338
                © 2014 Saeed and Narendran. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                diabetes, review, sglt2 inhibitor, sglt2, dapagliflozin

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