+1 Recommend
1 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      A Categorization of Behaviors Reported in Experience Sampling Studies


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Experience sampling is considered one of the best methods for measuring behavior (Furr, 2009, https://doi.org/10.1002/per.724). When used for this purpose, it requires a coding system to transform diversified reports on what people are doing, provided as responses to an open-ended question, into interpretable data. We present a categorization of everyday behaviors that can be used to code responses from experience sampling and diary studies conducted with different groups of participants—from adolescents to elderly people. This categorization was developed and validated on a set of 19,840 responses to an open-ended question about participants’ recent activity, provided by 667 persons ranging in age from 12 to 66. As a result of the multistage work, we present a categorization system which forms a hierarchy from three broad categories to 97 narrow ones through middle levels of five, 23, and 63 categories of behaviors. The possible usage of the developed categorization is discussed.

          Related collections

          Most cited references21

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: found
          Is Open Access

          Interrater reliability: the kappa statistic

          The kappa statistic is frequently used to test interrater reliability. The importance of rater reliability lies in the fact that it represents the extent to which the data collected in the study are correct representations of the variables measured. Measurement of the extent to which data collectors (raters) assign the same score to the same variable is called interrater reliability. While there have been a variety of methods to measure interrater reliability, traditionally it was measured as percent agreement, calculated as the number of agreement scores divided by the total number of scores. In 1960, Jacob Cohen critiqued use of percent agreement due to its inability to account for chance agreement. He introduced the Cohen’s kappa, developed to account for the possibility that raters actually guess on at least some variables due to uncertainty. Like most correlation statistics, the kappa can range from −1 to +1. While the kappa is one of the most commonly used statistics to test interrater reliability, it has limitations. Judgments about what level of kappa should be acceptable for health research are questioned. Cohen’s suggested interpretation may be too lenient for health related studies because it implies that a score as low as 0.41 might be acceptable. Kappa and percent agreement are compared, and levels for both kappa and percent agreement that should be demanded in healthcare studies are suggested.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Refining the theory of basic individual values.

            We propose a refined theory of basic individual values intended to provide greater heuristic and explanatory power than the original theory of 10 values (Schwartz, 1992). The refined theory more accurately expresses the central assumption of the original theory that research has largely ignored: Values form a circular motivational continuum. The theory defines and orders 19 values on the continuum based on their compatible and conflicting motivations, expression of self-protection versus growth, and personal versus social focus. We assess the theory with a new instrument in 15 samples from 10 countries (N = 6,059). Confirmatory factor and multidimensional scaling analyses support discrimination of the 19 values, confirming the refined theory. Multidimensional scaling analyses largely support the predicted motivational order of the values. Analyses of predictive validity demonstrate that the refined values theory provides greater and more precise insight into the value underpinnings of beliefs. Each value correlates uniquely with external variables.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Using experience sampling methods/ecological momentary assessment (ESM/EMA) in clinical assessment and clinical research: introduction to the special section.

              This article introduces the special section on experience sampling methods and ecological momentary assessment in clinical assessment. We review the conceptual basis for experience sampling methods (ESM; Csikszentmihalyi & Larson, 1987) and ecological momentary assessment (EMA; Stone & Shiffman, 1994). Next, we highlight several advantageous features of ESM/EMA as applied to psychological assessment and clinical research. We provide a brief overview of the articles in this special section, each of which focuses on 1 of the following major classes of psychological disorders: mood disorders and mood dysregulation (Ebner-Priemer & Trull, 2009), anxiety disorders (Alpers, 2009), substance use disorders (Shiffman, 2009), and psychosis (Oorschot, Kwapil, Delespaul, & Myin-Germeys, 2009). Finally, we discuss prospects, future challenges, and limitations of ESM/EMA.

                Author and article information

                Soc Psychol Bull
                Social Psychological Bulletin
                Soc. Psychol. Bull.
                31 July 2020
                : 15
                : 2
                : e3029
                [a ]Institute of Psychology, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw , Warsaw, Poland
                [b ]University Research Priority Program Social Networks, University of Zurich , Zurich, Switzerland
                [c ]Faculty of Management, Economics and Social Sciences, University of Cologne , Cologne, Germany
                [4]SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Warsaw, Poland
                Author notes
                [* ]Institute of Psychology, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw, Wóycickiego 1/3 bud. 14; 01-938 Warszawa, Poland. j.cieciuch@ 123456uksw.edu.pl

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 4.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 15 October 2019
                : 03 April 2020
                Self URI (journal-page): https://journals.psychopen.eu/

                experience sampling,behavior,diary study,categorization of behaviors,activities
                experience sampling, behavior, diary study, categorization of behaviors, activities


                Comment on this article