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      The signal pathways and treatment of cytokine storm in COVID-19

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          Abstract

          The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a global crisis and is more devastating than any other previous infectious disease. It has affected a significant proportion of the global population both physically and mentally, and destroyed businesses and societies. Current evidence suggested that immunopathology may be responsible for COVID-19 pathogenesis, including lymphopenia, neutrophilia, dysregulation of monocytes and macrophages, reduced or delayed type I interferon (IFN-I) response, antibody-dependent enhancement, and especially, cytokine storm (CS). The CS is characterized by hyperproduction of an array of pro-inflammatory cytokines and is closely associated with poor prognosis. These excessively secreted pro-inflammatory cytokines initiate different inflammatory signaling pathways via their receptors on immune and tissue cells, resulting in complicated medical symptoms including fever, capillary leak syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and multiorgan failure, ultimately leading to death in the most severe cases. Therefore, it is clinically important to understand the initiation and signaling pathways of CS to develop more effective treatment strategies for COVID-19. Herein, we discuss the latest developments in the immunopathological characteristics of COVID-19 and focus on CS including the current research status of the different cytokines involved. We also discuss the induction, function, downstream signaling, and existing and potential interventions for targeting these cytokines or related signal pathways. We believe that a comprehensive understanding of CS in COVID-19 will help to develop better strategies to effectively control immunopathology in this disease and other infectious and inflammatory diseases.

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          Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China

          Summary Background A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. Methods All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not. Findings By Jan 2, 2020, 41 admitted hospital patients had been identified as having laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. Most of the infected patients were men (30 [73%] of 41); less than half had underlying diseases (13 [32%]), including diabetes (eight [20%]), hypertension (six [15%]), and cardiovascular disease (six [15%]). Median age was 49·0 years (IQR 41·0–58·0). 27 (66%) of 41 patients had been exposed to Huanan seafood market. One family cluster was found. Common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (40 [98%] of 41 patients), cough (31 [76%]), and myalgia or fatigue (18 [44%]); less common symptoms were sputum production (11 [28%] of 39), headache (three [8%] of 38), haemoptysis (two [5%] of 39), and diarrhoea (one [3%] of 38). Dyspnoea developed in 22 (55%) of 40 patients (median time from illness onset to dyspnoea 8·0 days [IQR 5·0–13·0]). 26 (63%) of 41 patients had lymphopenia. All 41 patients had pneumonia with abnormal findings on chest CT. Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (12 [29%]), RNAaemia (six [15%]), acute cardiac injury (five [12%]) and secondary infection (four [10%]). 13 (32%) patients were admitted to an ICU and six (15%) died. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had higher plasma levels of IL2, IL7, IL10, GSCF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα. Interpretation The 2019-nCoV infection caused clusters of severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and was associated with ICU admission and high mortality. Major gaps in our knowledge of the origin, epidemiology, duration of human transmission, and clinical spectrum of disease need fulfilment by future studies. Funding Ministry of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission.
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            A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019

            Summary In December 2019, a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause was linked to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China. A previously unknown betacoronavirus was discovered through the use of unbiased sequencing in samples from patients with pneumonia. Human airway epithelial cells were used to isolate a novel coronavirus, named 2019-nCoV, which formed a clade within the subgenus sarbecovirus, Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. Different from both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, 2019-nCoV is the seventh member of the family of coronaviruses that infect humans. Enhanced surveillance and further investigation are ongoing. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China and the National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China.)
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              Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus–Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China

              In December 2019, novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-infected pneumonia (NCIP) occurred in Wuhan, China. The number of cases has increased rapidly but information on the clinical characteristics of affected patients is limited.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                xdm@szu.edu.cn
                yfzhou1@fudan.edu.cn
                Journal
                Signal Transduct Target Ther
                Signal Transduct Target Ther
                Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2095-9907
                2059-3635
                7 July 2021
                7 July 2021
                2021
                : 6
                : 255
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.8547.e, ISNI 0000 0001 0125 2443, Institute of Pediatrics, Children’s Hospital of Fudan University, National Children’s Medical Center, and the Shanghai Key Laboratory of Medical Epigenetics, International Co-laboratory of Medical Epigenetics and Metabolism, Ministry of Science and Technology, Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, , Fudan University, ; Shanghai, China
                [2 ]GRID grid.8547.e, ISNI 0000 0001 0125 2443, National Health Commission (NHC) Key Laboratory of Neonatal Diseases, , Fudan University, ; Shanghai, China
                [3 ]GRID grid.411333.7, ISNI 0000 0004 0407 2968, General Department, , Children’s Hospital of Fudan University, ; Shanghai, China
                [4 ]GRID grid.263488.3, ISNI 0000 0001 0472 9649, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease for Allergy at Shenzhen University, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Allergy and Immunology, , Shenzhen University School of Medicine, ; Shenzhen, China
                [5 ]GRID grid.8756.c, ISNI 0000 0001 2193 314X, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, , University of Glasgow, ; Glasgow, UK
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3138-0398
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6050-4951
                Article
                679
                10.1038/s41392-021-00679-0
                8261820
                34234112
                f91ecd19-6ec1-4d62-bb8f-78f4a470751d
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 21 March 2021
                : 22 May 2021
                : 12 June 2021
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China (National Science Foundation of China);
                Award ID: 81974248
                Award ID: 81671561
                Award ID: 81671561
                Award ID: 81974248
                Award ID: 81974248
                Award ID: 81974248
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Versus Arthritis UK (21327 to DX) and Shenzhen Science and Technology Peacock Team Project (KQTD20170331145453160).
                Categories
                Review Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2021

                infectious diseases
                infectious diseases

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