In the pathogenesis of thyrotropin (TSH) immunopositive pituitary adenomas, trigger mutagenetic events are well recognized. However, the way towards a clinical significant tumor is followed under the pressure of growth factors, among which the intrapituitary synthesis of releasing factors could bring a significant contribution. In this study, the production of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and beta TSH chain was evaluated at the mRNA level by in situ hybridization and end product level by immunohistochemistry, in 18 patients submitted to neurosurgery for pituitary macroadenomas. The hormonal sampling showed abnormal secretion for FSH in 5 and TSH in 4 patients. Seven cases were immunopositive for TSH, and expressed TSH β mRNA. All but one out of these expressed also TRH mRNA. FSH immunoreactivity was documented in 12/ 18, only one of these being negative for TRH mRNA. Paracrine TRH could contribute to the patogenesis of these “mute” adenomas.