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      Impact of the COVID‐19 Pandemic on Parent, Child, and Family Functioning


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          To quantify the impact of the COVID‐19 pandemic and public health interventions on parent and child mental health and family relationships, we examined change in individual and family functioning in a sample of parents enrolled in a prevention trial; we examined change before the pandemic (2017–2019) when children were an average of 7 years old to the first months after the imposition of widespread public health interventions in the United States (2020) with paired t tests and HLM models. We examined moderation by parent gender, education, family income, and coparenting conflict. We found large deteriorations from before the pandemic to the first months of the pandemic in child internalizing and externalizing problems and parent depression, and a moderate decline in coparenting quality. Smaller changes were found for parent anxiety and parenting quality. Mothers and families with lower levels of income were at particular risk for deterioration in well‐being. Results indicate a need for widespread family support and intervention to prevent potential family “scarring,” that is, prolonged, intertwined individual mental health and family relationship problems.


          Para cuantificar el efecto de la pandemia de la COVID‐19 y de las intervenciones de salud pública en la salud mental de los padres y los niños y en las relaciones familiares, analizamos los cambios en el funcionamiento individual y familiar en una muestra de padres inscriptos en un ensayo de prevención; estudiamos el cambio antes de la pandemia (2017‐2019) cuando los niños tenían un promedio de 7 años hasta los primeros meses después de la imposición de las intervenciones generalizadas de salud pública en los Estados Unidos (2020) con pruebas t apareadas y modelos lineales jerárquicos. Analizamos la moderación por género, educación, ingresos familiares y conflicto de cocrianza de los padres. Hallamos grandes deterioros desde antes de la pandemia hasta los primeros meses de la pandemia en problemas de interiorización y exteriorización de los niños y depresión de los padres, y una disminución moderada de la calidad de la cocrianza. También encontramos cambios más pequeños en la ansiedad de los padres y la calidad de la crianza. Las madres y las familias con niveles más bajos de ingresos estuvieron en riesgo particular de deterioro del bienestar. Los resultados indican la necesidad de apoyo familiar generalizado y de intervenciones para prevenir posibles «secuelas» familiares, p. ej.: salud mental individual interconectada y prolongada y problemas en las relaciones familiares.


          本文把COVID‐19和公共健康干预措施对父母和儿童的心理健康以及对家庭关系的影响进行量化,对参加一项预防试验的人群样本进行了研究,主要关于这些受试父母的个体功能和家庭功能产生了哪些变化; 我们采用配对t检验和HLM模型,研究了新冠肺炎(2017‐2019年)前的变化,即平均年龄为7岁的儿童至美国实施广泛公共健康干预措施(2020年)后的第一个月。我们通过父母性别、教育程度、家庭收入和养育子女的冲突来考察这些因素的调适作用。我们发现,儿童对很多问题以及父母的抑郁表现都进行内化和外化,从新冠肺炎流行发生前到新冠大流行的头几个月出现了严重恶化倾向,亲子教育的质量略有下降。父母的焦虑和培养孩子方面的质量也有较小的变化。收入水平较低的母亲和家庭的福祉尤其有恶化的风险。结果表明,需要给予广泛的家庭支持和干预,以防止潜在的家庭"伤疤",即长期错综搅合在一起的个人心理健康和家庭关系问题。

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          Most cited references53

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          The CES-D Scale: A Self-Report Depression Scale for Research in the General Population

          L Radloff (1977)
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            Mental health before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a longitudinal probability sample survey of the UK population

            Summary Background The potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on population mental health is of increasing global concern. We examine changes in adult mental health in the UK population before and during the lockdown. Methods In this secondary analysis of a national, longitudinal cohort study, households that took part in Waves 8 or 9 of the UK Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS) panel, including all members aged 16 or older in April, 2020, were invited to complete the COVID-19 web survey on April 23–30, 2020. Participants who were unable to make an informed decision as a result of incapacity, or who had unknown postal addresses or addresses abroad were excluded. Mental health was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Repeated cross-sectional analyses were done to examine temporal trends. Fixed-effects regression models were fitted to identify within-person change compared with preceding trends. Findings Waves 6–9 of the UKHLS had 53 351 participants. Eligible participants for the COVID-19 web survey were from households that took part in Waves 8 or 9, and 17 452 (41·2%) of 42 330 eligible people participated in the web survey. Population prevalence of clinically significant levels of mental distress rose from 18·9% (95% CI 17·8–20·0) in 2018–19 to 27·3% (26·3–28·2) in April, 2020, one month into UK lockdown. Mean GHQ-12 score also increased over this time, from 11·5 (95% CI 11·3–11·6) in 2018–19, to 12·6 (12·5–12·8) in April, 2020. This was 0·48 (95% CI 0·07–0·90) points higher than expected when accounting for previous upward trends between 2014 and 2018. Comparing GHQ-12 scores within individuals, adjusting for time trends and significant predictors of change, increases were greatest in 18–24-year-olds (2·69 points, 95% CI 1·89–3·48), 25–34-year-olds (1·57, 0·96–2·18), women (0·92, 0·50–1·35), and people living with young children (1·45, 0·79–2·12). People employed before the pandemic also averaged a notable increase in GHQ-12 score (0·63, 95% CI 0·20–1·06). Interpretation By late April, 2020, mental health in the UK had deteriorated compared with pre-COVID-19 trends. Policies emphasising the needs of women, young people, and those with preschool aged children are likely to play an important part in preventing future mental illness. Funding None.
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              Is Open Access

              The COVID-19 Cytokine Storm; What We Know So Far

              COVID-19 is a rapidly spreading global threat that has been declared as a pandemic by the WHO. COVID-19 is transmitted via droplets or direct contact and infects the respiratory tract resulting in pneumonia in most of the cases and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in about 15 % of the cases. Mortality in COVID-19 patients has been linked to the presence of the so-called “cytokine storm” induced by the virus. Excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines leads to ARDS aggravation and widespread tissue damage resulting in multi-organ failure and death. Targeting cytokines during the management of COVID-19 patients could improve survival rates and reduce mortality.

                Author and article information

                Fam Process
                Fam Process
                Family Process
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                08 April 2021
                : 10.1111/famp.12649
                [ 1 ] Prevention Research Center College of Health and Human Development Human Development and Family Studies The Pennsylvania State University University Park PA USA
                [ 2 ] Department of Psychology College of Liberal Arts The Pennsylvania State University University Park PA USA
                [ 3 ] Human Development and Family Studies College of Health and Human Development The Pennsylvania State University University Park PA USA
                [ 4 ] Department of Medicine University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Los Angeles CA USA
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Mark E. Feinberg, 300 Biobehavior Health Building, The Pennsylvania Statue University, University Park, PA 16802. E‐mail: mef11@ 123456psu.edu .

                Author information
                © 2021 Family Process Institute

                This article is being made freely available through PubMed Central as part of the COVID-19 public health emergency response. It can be used for unrestricted research re-use and analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source, for the duration of the public health emergency.

                : 01 March 2021
                : 02 November 2020
                : 03 March 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, Pages: 14, Words: 16570
                Funded by: National Institute of Child Health and Development
                Award ID: HD058529
                Funded by: The Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, Pennsylvania State University
                Original Article
                Original Articles
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                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:6.0.4 mode:remove_FC converted:02.07.2021

                covid‐19,family relationships,mental health
                covid‐19, family relationships, mental health


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