Aims: We intended to investigate the relative genetic contribution in wavefront aberrations using a sub-group of twins recruited in the Genes in Myopia twin study, and subsequently provide direction for future studies into the aetiology of mono-chromatic aberrations. To our knowledge, the Genes in Myopia twin study is the first study to explore the role of genetic factors in both lower- and higher-order aberrations in a Caucasian population. Methods: Each individual completed a general questionnaire and underwent a comprehensive eye examination. Higher-order wavefront aberrations were calculated with Zernike coefficients up to the fourth order. Results: A total of 46 twin pairs with a mean age of 65.3 years were included in the analysis. Monozygotic intra-pair correlations were significantly higher compared to those in dizygotic twin pairs for defocus aberrations (p < 0.05). A trend for a genetic component was identified for higher-order aberrations. Conclusion: Genetic studies into refraction typically explore the genetic effects of lower-order aberrations such as myopia and hypermetropia; however, there is little to no research into the genetic basis of higher-order aberrations. The Genes in Myopia twin study indicates a potential genetic role for higher-order aberrations and provides useful insights into the aetiology of refractive error.