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      Role of Genetic Factors in Lower- and Higher-Order Aberrations – The Genes in Myopia Twin Study

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          Abstract

          Aims: We intended to investigate the relative genetic contribution in wavefront aberrations using a sub-group of twins recruited in the Genes in Myopia twin study, and subsequently provide direction for future studies into the aetiology of mono-chromatic aberrations. To our knowledge, the Genes in Myopia twin study is the first study to explore the role of genetic factors in both lower- and higher-order aberrations in a Caucasian population. Methods: Each individual completed a general questionnaire and underwent a comprehensive eye examination. Higher-order wavefront aberrations were calculated with Zernike coefficients up to the fourth order. Results: A total of 46 twin pairs with a mean age of 65.3 years were included in the analysis. Monozygotic intra-pair correlations were significantly higher compared to those in dizygotic twin pairs for defocus aberrations (p < 0.05). A trend for a genetic component was identified for higher-order aberrations. Conclusion: Genetic studies into refraction typically explore the genetic effects of lower-order aberrations such as myopia and hypermetropia; however, there is little to no research into the genetic basis of higher-order aberrations. The Genes in Myopia twin study indicates a potential genetic role for higher-order aberrations and provides useful insights into the aetiology of refractive error.

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          Most cited references 20

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          A zygosity questionnaire for young twins: a research note.

           H. Goldsmith (1991)
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            Complex trait genetics of refractive error.

            Refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism) are complex heterogeneous disorders of the human eye and are ideal for genetic investigation. Moderate to severe refractive errors can predispose individuals to poor visual development, various types of glaucoma, misshapen corneal surfaces, premature cataracts, and loss of retinal integrity, which can lead to detachment. Knowledge of genetic mechanisms involved in refractive error susceptibility may allow treatment to prevent progression or to further examine gene-environment interactions. Early genetic predisposition detection for developing severe refractive errors may be useful for efficient and cost-effective screening program design. This review explores the genetic mechanisms associated with nonsyndromic refractive error development known to date.
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              Statistical variation of aberration structure and image quality in a normal population of healthy eyes

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ORE
                Ophthalmic Res
                10.1159/issn.0030-3747
                Ophthalmic Research
                S. Karger AG
                0030-3747
                1423-0259
                2009
                April 2009
                26 March 2009
                : 41
                : 3
                : 142-147
                Affiliations
                aCentre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic., and bVision CRC, Sydney, N.S.W., Australia
                Article
                209667 Ophthalmic Res 2009;41:142–147
                10.1159/000209667
                19321935
                © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 29, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Paper

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