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      Financial impact of an outbreak of clinically diagnosed blackleg – a case study from Lao PDR

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          Blackleg ( BL) is an acute to peracute highly fatal infectious disease of mainly large ruminants characterised by lesions of myonecrosis caused by Clostridium chauvoei, usually presenting as a sudden onset of sporadic mortalities. In Southeast Asia, ‘ BL’ is considered a cause of occasional outbreaks of a subacute febrile illness, although there are few published reports available. Investigation of a major outbreak of clinically diagnosed BL occurring in large ruminants (cattle and buffalo) in three neighbouring villages in central Laos in mid‐2017, was conducted to determine the financial impacts of BL on smallholder livelihoods. Owners of BL‐infected large ruminants in the three affected villages were interviewed ( n = 27) and financial losses including losses due to mortality, morbidity and costs of treatments, were determined. The reports of clinical signs of subcutaneous swelling with palpable crepitus in febrile animals were considered consistent with a diagnosis of BL. The outbreak occurred in 47 of a total 449 households with large ruminants across the three villages, affecting 147 of a total population of 3505 ‘at risk’ large ruminants with 71 deaths reported. At the household level, the mean morbidity and mortality rates were 5 ± 4(95% CI: 3–6) and 3 ± 2(95% CI: 1–4) heads per household, respectively. The estimated financial losses due to BL per affected household was USD 822 ± 692(95% CI: 518–1125), being 122% of their annual household income from large ruminant sales. The comparison between the estimated losses due to BL per village and cost of annual BL vaccination programmes, indicated a potential economic benefit of USD3.09 and USD12.37 for every dollar invested in the vaccination programme, if BL outbreaks occur every 20 and 5 years, respectively. This study indicates that clinically diagnosed BL can cause significant losses to smallholder households, and requires Lao animal health authorities to consider vaccination interventions to prevent losses from re‐emergence of BL in the known endemically affected areas.

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          Financial Impact of Foot and Mouth Disease on Large Ruminant Smallholder Farmers in the Greater Mekong Subregion.

          A retrospective investigation of financial losses incurred by large ruminant smallholder farmers due to outbreaks of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in 2010-12 in northern Laos was conducted in 2012. The aim was to support recommendations on sustainable transboundary animal disease control strategies in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). Large ruminant smallholders in the three northern provinces of Luang Prabang (LPB), Xiengkhoung (XK) and Xayyabouli (XYL) were interviewed (n = 310). Financial losses were determined, including direct losses due to mortality (100% of pre-FMD sale value) and morbidity (difference between the expected sale price pre-FMD and 1 month following onset of FMD), and indirect losses due to costs of treatments. The losses due to FMD per household varied between provinces (P < 0.001) and were USD 1124, USD 862 and USD 381 in LPB, XK and XYL, respectively, being 60, 40 and 16% of annual household income. Comparison of the costs of FMD with annual household income from sales of large ruminants indicated losses of 213, 181 and 60% of the income in LPB, XK and XYL, respectively. The variation in losses between provinces was due to differences in levels of morbidity with highest in LPB, treatment methods with antibiotic use common in LPB, age of animals sold and sale prices with higher prices in XK. Partial budget analysis of biannual FMD vaccination indicated an average net benefit of USD 22 and USD 33 for cattle and buffalo, respectively. However, vaccination alone is unlikely to control FMD in the region. Promotion of multiple large ruminant health and production intervention programmes to stimulate interest in biosecurity in addition to vaccination is recommended, providing a more sustainable pathway for poverty reduction through the current expansion of livestock investments in the GMS.
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            Limiting the Impacts of foot and mouth disease in large ruminants in northern Lao People's Democratic Republic by vaccination: a case study.

             L Rast,  S Khounsy,  P Windsor (2010)
            Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is the most important global transboundary livestock disease and is endemic in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) with outbreaks occurring regularly. Lao PDR shares borders with five countries and as a major thoroughfare for transboundary livestock movement, is vulnerable to the social and economic impacts of FMD. The FMD outbreak occurred in January 2009 in the Pek District, located in the north-eastern Lao PDR province of Xieng Khuang and involved all 111 villages in that district. In March 2009, we conducted a case study on the impacts of FMD in four villages in Pek District. In two villages cattle and buffalo were vaccinated for FMD recently and prior to the outbreak as part of an ongoing research project. In one of these villages, all cattle and buffalo were vaccinated and just over half the large ruminant population was vaccinated in the other village. The other two villages involved in the case study were located nearby but not part of the ongoing research project and no animals had been vaccinated. Data were collected from the four villages by interviewing the village animal health worker in each village using a standard questionnaire. Morbidity rates for the fully vaccinated village were 1% and 7.9% for the partially vaccinated village and were much lower compared with the two adjacent, unvaccinated villages where morbidity rates were 61% and 74.3% respectively. Estimates of the financial losses incurred were USD 1.7-1.9 per cow or buffalo for the fully vaccinated village, USD 6.9-8.1 for the partly vaccinated village and 52.4-70.8 USD in the unvaccinated villages, providing evidence that a large opportunity cost is incurred by failing to vaccinate in areas where the risk of FMD incursions is high.
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              Financial Impacts of Foot-and-Mouth Disease at Village and National Levels in Lao PDR


                Author and article information

                Vet Med Sci
                Vet Med Sci
                Veterinary Medicine and Science
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                19 February 2019
                May 2019
                : 5
                : 2 ( doiID: 10.1002/vms3.2019.5.issue-2 )
                : 118-128
                [ 1 ] The University of Sydney, Sydney School of Veterinary Science Camden New South Wales Australia
                [ 2 ] Department of Livestock and Fisheries Vientiane Lao People's Democratic Republic
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: Sonevilay Nampanya, The University of Sydney, Sydney School of Veterinary Science, Camden, New South Wales, Australia. E‐mail: snam7362@
                © 2019 The Authors. Veterinary Medicine and Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

                This is an open access article under the terms of the License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, Pages: 11, Words: 6631
                Funded by: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
                Award ID: AH/2012/068
                Original Article
                Original Articles
                Custom metadata
                May 2019
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version: mode:remove_FC converted:03.05.2019


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