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Increased Atherothrombotic Burden in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Review of Antiplatelet Therapy

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      Patients with diabetes mellitus presenting with acute coronary syndrome have a higher risk of cardiovascular complications and recurrent ischemic events when compared to nondiabetic counterparts. Different mechanisms including endothelial dysfunction, platelet hyperactivity, and abnormalities in coagulation and fibrinolysis have been implicated for this increased atherothrombotic risk. Platelets play an important role in atherogenesis and its thrombotic complications in diabetic patients with acute coronary syndrome. Hence, potent platelet inhibition is of paramount importance in order to optimise outcomes of diabetic patients with acute coronary syndrome. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the increased thrombotic burden in diabetes and acute coronary syndrome, the underlying pathophysiology focussing on endothelial and platelet abnormalities, currently available antiplatelet therapies, their benefits and limitations in diabetic patients, and to describe potential future therapeutic strategies to overcome these limitations.

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          Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030.

          We estimated the number of people worldwide with diabetes for the years 2010 and 2030. Studies from 91 countries were used to calculate age- and sex-specific diabetes prevalences, which were applied to national population estimates, to determine national diabetes prevalences for all 216 countries for 2010 and 2030. Studies were identified using Medline, and contact with all national and regional International Diabetes Federation offices. Studies were included if diabetes prevalence was assessed using a population-based methodology, and was based on World Health Organization or American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria for at least three separate age-groups within the 20-79 year range. Self-report or registry data were used if blood glucose assessment was not available. The world prevalence of diabetes among adults (aged 20-79 years) will be 6.4%, affecting 285 million adults, in 2010, and will increase to 7.7%, and 439 million adults by 2030. Between 2010 and 2030, there will be a 69% increase in numbers of adults with diabetes in developing countries and a 20% increase in developed countries. These predictions, based on a larger number of studies than previous estimates, indicate a growing burden of diabetes, particularly in developing countries. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

            Author and article information

            1Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, UK
            2Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne NE7 7DN, UK
            Author notes

            Academic Editor: Bernhard Witzenbichler

            Cardiol Res Pract
            Cardiology Research and Practice
            Hindawi Publishing Corporation
            5 January 2012
            : 2012
            Copyright © 2012 Karthik Balasubramaniam et al.

            This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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            Cardiovascular Medicine


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