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      Physical functioning and mindfulness skills training in chronic pain: a systematic review

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          The importance of improved physical function as a primary outcome in the treatment of chronic pain is widely accepted. There have been limited attempts to assess the effects mindfulness skills training (MST) has on objective outcomes in chronic pain care.


          This systematic review evaluated published reports of original randomized controlled trials that described physical function outcomes after MST in the chronic pain population and met methodological quality according to a list of predefined criteria. PRISMA criteria were used to identify and select studies, and assess their eligibility for inclusion. The established guidelines for best practice of systematic reviews were followed to report the results.


          Of the 2,818 articles identified from the original search of four electronic databases, inclusionary criteria were met by 15 studies published as of August 10, 2015, totaling 1,199 patients. All included studies used self-report measures of physical function, and only two studies also employed performance-based measures of function. There were wide variations in how physical function was conceptualized and measured. Although the quality of the studies was rated as high, there was inconclusive evidence for improvement in physical function assessed by self-report due to contradiction in individual study findings and the measures used to assess function. Strong evidence for lack of improvement in physical function assessed via performance-based measures was found.


          This review draws attention to the importance of having a unified approach to how physical function is conceptualized and assessed, as well as the importance of using quality performance-based measures in addition to subjective self-reports that appropriately assess the physical function construct within MSTs for chronic pain.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Design and analysis of pilot studies: recommendations for good practice.

          Pilot studies play an important role in health research, but they can be misused, mistreated and misrepresented. In this paper we focus on pilot studies that are used specifically to plan a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Citing examples from the literature, we provide a methodological framework in which to work, and discuss reasons why a pilot study might be undertaken. A well-conducted pilot study, giving a clear list of aims and objectives within a formal framework will encourage methodological rigour, ensure that the work is scientifically valid and publishable, and will lead to higher quality RCTs. It will also safeguard against pilot studies being conducted simply because of small numbers of available patients.
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              Randomized Trial of a Fitbit-Based Physical Activity Intervention for Women.

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                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                03 January 2019
                : 12
                : 179-189
                [1 ]Department of Diagnostic Sciences, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA, william_c.jackson@ 123456tufts.edu
                [2 ]Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard School of Medicine, MA, USA
                [3 ]Department of Clinical Health Psychology, William James College, MA, USA
                [4 ]Department of Health Sciences Library, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
                [5 ]Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
                [6 ]Research and Network Development, Boston PainCare, Waltham, MA, USA
                [7 ]Department of Anesthesia, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard School of Medicine, MA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: William Jackson, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Craniofacial Pain Center, 1 Kneeland Street, Boston, MA 02111, USA, Tel +1 857 891 1828, Fax +1 617 726 3441, Email william_c.jackson@ 123456tufts.edu

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2019 Jackson et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.



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