Antonia M. Calafat 1 , Matthew P. Longnecker 2 , Holger M. Koch 3 , Shanna H. Swan 4 , Russ Hauser 5 , Lynn R. Goldman 6 , Bruce P. Lanphear 7 , Ruthann A. Rudel 8 , Stephanie M. Engel 9 , Susan L. Teitelbaum 4 , Robin M. Whyatt 10 , Mary S. Wolff , 4
01 July 2015
We discuss considerations that are essential when evaluating exposure to nonpersistent, semivolatile environmental chemicals such as phthalates and phenols (e.g., bisphenol A). A biomarker should be chosen to best represent usual personal exposures and not recent, adventitious, or extraneous exposures. Biomarkers should be selected to minimize contamination arising from collection, sampling, or analysis procedures. Pharmacokinetics should be considered; for example, nonpersistent, semivolatile chemicals are metabolized quickly, and urine is the compartment with the highest concentrations of metabolites. Because these chemicals are nonpersistent, knowledge of intraindividual reliability over the biologic window of interest is also required. In recent years researchers have increasingly used blood as a matrix for characterizing exposure to nonpersistent chemicals. However, the biologic and technical factors noted above strongly support urine as the optimal matrix for measuring nonpersistent, semivolatile, hydrophilic environmental agents.