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      Naegleria species population found in pond water of parks in Mashhad city, Can the physicochemical factors affect it?

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          Abstract

          Naegleria species are the ubiquitous free-living amoebas that are found worldwide in soil and water. Among Naegleria spp., N. fowleri can cause primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). Ninety water samples were collected from the pond of parks. Also, the water quality parameters were measured at the sampling site (such as temperature, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC) and Turbidity).

          After filtering, the samples were cultured on Bacto-agar enriched with Escherichia coli. A PCR assay was conducted on the culture-positive samples in the ITS1, 5.8SrDNA and ITS2 regions, and then the PCR products were sequenced.

          The pond water of parks was contaminated with some Naegleria spp. (except N. fowleri) and a Vahlkampfia avara. There was no significant relationship between water quality parameters and the presence of Naegleria (p > 0.05).

          Our protocol investigates to detect Naegleria spp. from ponds water of parks in Mashhad city and the relations between the water quality parameters and its presence.

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          Most cited references 5

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          Pathogenic and opportunistic free-living amoebae: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea.

          Among the many genera of free-living amoebae that exist in nature, members of only four genera have an association with human disease: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri and Sappinia diploidea. Acanthamoeba spp. and B. mandrillaris are opportunistic pathogens causing infections of the central nervous system, lungs, sinuses and skin, mostly in immunocompromised humans. Balamuthia is also associated with disease in immunocompetent children, and Acanthamoeba spp. cause a sight-threatening infection, Acanthamoeba keratitis, mostly in contact-lens wearers. Of more than 30 species of Naegleria, only one species, N. fowleri, causes an acute and fulminating meningoencephalitis in immunocompetent children and young adults. In addition to human infections, Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia and Naegleria can cause central nervous system infections in animals. Because only one human case of encephalitis caused by Sappinia diploidea is known, generalizations about the organism as an agent of disease are premature. In this review we summarize what is known of these free-living amoebae, focusing on their biology, ecology, types of disease and diagnostic methods. We also discuss the clinical profiles, mechanisms of pathogenesis, pathophysiology, immunology, antimicrobial sensitivity and molecular characteristics of these amoebae.
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            Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Free-Living Amoebae from Different Water Sources in Italy

            Free-living amoebae (FLA) are protozoa ubiquitous in Nature, isolated from a variety of environments worldwide. In addition to their natural distribution, some species have been found to be pathogenic to humans. In the present study a survey was conducted in order to evaluate the presence and to characterize at molecular level the isolates of amoebic organisms collected from different water sources in Italy. A total of 160 water samples were analyzed by culture and microscopic examination. FLA were found in 46 (28.7%) of the investigated water samples. Groundwater, well waters, and ornamental fountain waters were the sources with higher prevalence rates (85.7%, 50.0%, and 45.9%, respectively). Identification of FLA species/genotypes, based on the 18S rDNA regions, allowed to identify 18 (39.1%) Acanthamoeba isolates (genotypes T4 and T15) and 21 (45.6%) Vermamoeba vermiformis isolates. Other FLA species, including Vahlkampfia sp. and Naegleria spp., previously reported in Italy, were not recovered. The occurrence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae in habitats related to human population, as reported in the present study, supports the relevance of FLA as a potential health threat to humans.
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              A year long study of the presence of free living amoeba in Spain.

              Free-living amoeba such as Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia mandrillaris can act as opportunistic parasites on a wide range of vertebrates and they are becoming a serious threat to human health due to the resistance of their cysts to harsh environmental conditions, disinfectants, some water treatment practices and their ubiquitous distribution. This work was carried out in order to study the presence of these free-living amoebae (FLA) and their possible seasonality in a continental-Mediterranean climate in different types of water. For this purpose, a total of 223 water samples were collected during one year from four drinking water treatment plants (DWTP), seven wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and six locations of influence (LI) on four river basins from Spain. Water samples were concentrated using the IDEXX Filta-Max(®) system and analyzed by a triplex real time PCR that detects Acanthamoeba, B. mandrillaris and Naegleria fowleri. Agar plates were also seeded for Acanthamoeba culture. From the three FLA studied, N. fowleri was not detected in any sample while B. mandrillaris was found at the entrance of a DWTP; this being, to our knowledge, the first report of these protozoa in water worldwide. On the other hand, the presence of Acanthamoeba observed was higher, 94.6% of the studied points were positive by real time PCR and 85.2% by culture, resulting in 99.1% positive for Acanthamoeba with both methods. All genetically analyzed Acanthamoeba were genotype T4 but nine different T4/DF3 sequences were observed, three of them being described for the first time, assigning new codes. No seasonal distribution of Acanthamoeba was found. These facts should serve as a warning to contact lens wearers of the risk of a poor hygiene when handling their contact lenses. It should also serve as a signal to physicians to consider FLA as a possible causative agent of nervous system infections as well as Acanthamoeba keratitis due to their high environmental presence shown in this study.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                MethodsX
                MethodsX
                MethodsX
                Elsevier
                2215-0161
                24 October 2018
                2018
                24 October 2018
                : 5
                : 1427-1430
                Affiliations
                [a ]Social Determinatns of Health Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
                [b ]Allergy Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
                [c ]Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
                [d ]Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Research Health Center, Faculty of Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
                [e ]Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran
                [f ]Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. ghaderifarsh@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                S2215-0161(18)30171-7
                10.1016/j.mex.2018.10.014
                6232641
                © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Chemical Engineering

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