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      ZIKV infection regulates inflammasomes pathway for replication in monocytes

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          Abstract

          ZIKV causes microcephaly by crossing the placental barrier, however, the mechanism of trans-placental dissemination of ZIKV remains unknown. Here, we sought to determine whether monocytes, which can cross tissue barriers, assist ZIKV dissemination to the fetus. We determined this by infecting monocytes with two strains of ZIKV: South American (PRVABC59) and Nigerian (IBH30656) and analyzing viral replication. We found that ZIKV infects and replicates in monocytes and macrophages, which results in the modulation of a large number of cellular genes. Analysis of these genes identified multiple pathways including inflammasome to be targeted by ZIKV, which was confirmed by analyzing the transcript levels of the proteins of inflammasome pathways, NLRP3, ASC, caspase 1, IL-1 and IL-18. Interestingly, IFNα and the IFN inducible gene, MxA were not enhanced, suggesting prevention of innate antiviral defense by ZIKV. Also, inhibition of inflammasome led to an increased transcriptional activity of IFNα, MxA and CXCL10. Based on these results we suggest that ZIKV transcription is regulated by inflammasomes.

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          Most cited references 48

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          Regulatory T cells and immune tolerance.

          Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an indispensable role in maintaining immunological unresponsiveness to self-antigens and in suppressing excessive immune responses deleterious to the host. Tregs are produced in the thymus as a functionally mature subpopulation of T cells and can also be induced from naive T cells in the periphery. Recent research reveals the cellular and molecular basis of Treg development and function and implicates dysregulation of Tregs in immunological disease.
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            Immunological and inflammatory functions of the interleukin-1 family.

            More than any other cytokine family, the interleukin (IL)-1 family is closely linked to the innate immune response. This linkage became evident upon the discovery that the cytoplasmic domain of the IL-1 receptor type I is highly homologous to the cytoplasmic domains of all Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Thus, fundamental inflammatory responses such as the induction of cyclooxygenase type 2, increased expression of adhesion molecules, or synthesis of nitric oxide are indistinguishable responses of both IL-1 and TLR ligands. Both families nonspecifically affect antigen recognition and lymphocyte function. IL-1beta is the most studied member of the IL-1 family because of its role in mediating autoinflammatory diseases. Although the TLR and IL-1 families evolved to assist in host defense against infection, unlike the TLR family, the IL-1 family also includes members that suppress inflammation, both specifically within the IL-1 family but also nonspecifically for TLR ligands and the innate immune response.
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              Inflammasomes: mechanism of action, role in disease, and therapeutics.

              The inflammasomes are innate immune system receptors and sensors that regulate the activation of caspase-1 and induce inflammation in response to infectious microbes and molecules derived from host proteins. They have been implicated in a host of inflammatory disorders. Recent developments have greatly enhanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which different inflammasomes are activated. Additionally, increasing evidence in mouse models, supported by human data, strongly implicates an involvement of the inflammasome in the initiation or progression of diseases with a high impact on public health, such as metabolic disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Finally, recent developments pointing toward promising therapeutics that target inflammasome activity in inflammatory diseases have been reported. This review will focus on these three areas of inflammasome research.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                scverma@medicine.nevada.edu
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                22 November 2017
                22 November 2017
                2017
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 914X, GRID grid.266818.3, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada, Reno School of Medicine, ; Reno, NV USA
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0543 9688, GRID grid.77268.3c, Kazan Federal University, ; Kazan, Russian Federation
                [3 ]Genquest LLC, Sparks, NV USA
                Article
                16072
                10.1038/s41598-017-16072-3
                5700238
                29167459
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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