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      Effects of Demographic Characteristics, Health-Related Behaviors and Lifestyle Factors on the Prevalence of Hypertension for the Middle-Aged and Elderly in the Guangxi Hei Yi Zhuang and Han Populations

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          Background/Aims: Hei Yi (meaning black worship and black dress) Zhuang is the most conservative group among the 43 ethnic subgroups of Zhuang in China due to its unique culture and customs. The prevalence of hypertension in this population has not been well defined. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to compare the effects of the demographic characteristics, health-related behaviors and lifestyle factors on the prevalence of hypertension in the middle-aged and elderly of the Guangxi Hei Yi Zhuang and Han populations. Methods:A total of 657 people of Hei Yi Zhuang aged 40 and over were randomly selected from 7 villages in Napo County of China. Information on the demographic characteristics, health-related behaviors and lifestyle factors was collected by questionnaire. Blood pressure, height, weight, waist circumference, serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated as a measure of weight relative to height. The results were compared with those of 520 Han who live in the same district. Results: The prevalence of hypertension and isolated systolic hypertension in Hei Yi Zhuang was significantly higher than in Han (32.9 vs. 24.6%, p < 0.01, and 16.7 vs. 5.2%, p < 0.001, respectively). The systolic blood pressure levels and pulse pressure in Hei Yi Zhuang were also significantly higher than in Han (129 ± 20.1 vs. 125.8 ± 17.4 mm Hg, p < 0.01, and 51.5 ± 16.1 vs. 47.1 ± 12.0 mm Hg, p < 0.01, respectively). The prevalence of hypertension was positively correlated with triglycerides, male, age, and alcohol consumption in Hei Yi Zhuang, whereas it was positively correlated with total cholesterol, male, age, alcohol consumption and BMI in Han. The rates of awareness, treatment and control in Hei Yi Zhuang and Han are 7.9 vs. 19.5%, 4.2 vs. 13.3% and 1.4 vs. 9.4% (p < 0.01 for all), respectively. Conclusion: The current study reveals a significant difference in the prevalence of hypertension, blood pressure levels, and the relative factors between the Hei Yi Zhuang and Han ethnic groups, which may have been due to differences in geographical characteristics, lifestyle, sodium intake, education levels, and even genetic factors.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension in China

          The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and distribution of hypertension and to determine the status of hypertension awareness, treatment, and control in the general adult population in China. The International Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Disease in ASIA (InterASIA), conducted in 2000-2001, used a multistage cluster sampling method to select a nationally representative sample. A total of 15 540 adults, age 35 to 74 years, were examined. Three blood pressure measurements were obtained by trained observers by use of a standardized mercury sphygmomanometer after a 5-minute sitting rest. Information on history of hypertension and use of antihypertensive medications was obtained by use of a standard questionnaire. Hypertension was defined as a mean systolic blood pressure > or =140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure > or =90 mm Hg, and/or use of antihypertensive medications. Overall, 27.2% of the Chinese adult population age 35 to 74 years, representing 129 824 000 persons, had hypertension. The age-specific prevalence of hypertension was 17.4%, 28.2%, 40.7%, and 47.3% in men and 10.7%, 26.8%, 38.9%, and 50.2% in women age 35 to 44 years, 45 to 54 years, 55 to 64 years, and 65 to 74 years, respectively. Among hypertensive patients, only 44.7% were aware of their high blood pressure, 28.2% were taking antihypertensive medication, and 8.1% achieved blood pressure control (<140/90 mm Hg). Our results indicate that hypertension is highly prevalent in China. The percentages of those with hypertension who are aware, treated, and controlled are unacceptably low. These results underscore the urgent need to develop national strategies to improve prevention, detection, and treatment of hypertension in China.
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            Inflammation, abdominal obesity, and smoking as predictors of hypertension.

            Development of hypertension has been linked to chronic low-grade inflammation. However, it is not known whether this connection is mediated by features of the metabolic syndrome or smoking, or their changes, which themselves have been linked to inflammation. We studied the predictive value of highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), smoking, and abdominal obesity to the development of hypertension in an 11-year follow-up of a population-based study cohort comprising 379 middle-aged normotensive men. During the follow-up, 124 men (33%) developed hypertension. Men with hs-CRP > or =3.0 mg/L were 2.8x (95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 6.6) more likely to develop hypertension than with hs-CRP <1.0 mg/L even after adjustment for features of the metabolic syndrome, lifestyle factors, and their changes. Cigarette smoking was also associated with development of hypertension independently of inflammation and other confounders. Waist girth increased more in men who quit smoking than in other men. An increase in waist girth during follow-up strongly predicted incident hypertension. The decrease in smoking was not associated with a lower risk of hypertension in age-adjusted analyses. Hypertension is preceded by low-grade chronic inflammation in middle-aged white men independently of smoking or features of the metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, smoking may be a risk factor for hypertension. Although stopping smoking is beneficial with respect to health outcomes, the subsequent increase in weight and waist girth associated with smoking cessation may offset the decrease in the risk of hypertension that one may otherwise expect.
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              Blood pressure, cholesterol, and stroke in eastern Asia


                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                December 2006
                22 December 2006
                : 29
                : 5
                : 312-320
                aDepartment of Cardiology, Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, bDepartment of Molecular Biology, Medical Scientific Research Center, cDepartment of Pathophysiology, School of Premedical Sciences, and dDepartment of Clinical Science, Experiment Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, and eHealth Bureau of Napo County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Baise, China
                97019 Kidney Blood Press Res 2006;29:312–320
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Tables: 5, References: 62, Pages: 9
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/97019
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