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      A pharmacokinetic comparison of two voriconazole formulations and the effect of CYP2C19 polymorphism on their pharmacokinetic profiles


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          SYP-1018 is a lyophilized polymeric nanoparticle formulation of voriconazole that is under development for intravenous dosing. This study compared the pharmacokinetic and tolerability profiles of SYP-1018 with those of Vfend ®, the marketed formulation of voriconazole. The effect of CYP2C19 polymorphism on the voriconazole pharmacokinetics was also evaluated.


          An open-label, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence crossover study was conducted in 52 healthy male volunteers, who randomly received a single intravenous infusion of either of the two voriconazole formulations at 200 mg. Blood samples were collected up to 24 hours after drug administration for pharmacokinetic analysis. The plasma concentrations of voriconazole were determined using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and the pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using a noncompartmental method. CYP2C19 genotype was identified in 51 subjects.


          The geometric mean ratio (90% confidence interval) of SYP-1018 to Vfend ® was 0.99 (0.93–1.04) for the maximum plasma concentrations (C max) and 0.97 (0.92–1.01) for the area under the concentration–time curve (AUC) from dosing to the last quantifiable concentration (AUC last). Nineteen homozygous extensive metabolizers (EMs, *1/*1), 19 intermediate metabolizers (IMs, *1/*2 or *1/*3), and ten poor metabolizers (PMs, *2/*2, *2/*3, or *3/*3) were identified, and the pharmacokinetic comparability between SYP-1018 and Vfend ® was also noted when analyzed separately by genotype. The systemic exposure to voriconazole was greatest in the PM group, followed by the IM, and then the EM groups. Furthermore, the intrasubject variability for C max and AUC last was greater in IMs and PMs than in EMs. No serious adverse event occurred, and both treatments were well tolerated.


          SYP-1018 had comparable pharmacokinetic and tolerability profiles to Vfend ® after a single intravenous infusion. CYP2C19 genotype affected not only the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole, but its intrasubject variability. SYP-1018 can be further developed as a clinically effective alternative to Vfend ®.

          Most cited references26

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          Voriconazole therapeutic drug monitoring in patients with invasive mycoses improves efficacy and safety outcomes.

          Voriconazole is the therapy of choice for aspergillosis and a new treatment option for candidiasis. Liver disease, age, genetic polymorphism of the cytochrome CYP2C19, and comedications influence voriconazole metabolism. Large variations in voriconazole pharmacokinetics may be associated with decreased efficacy or with toxicity. This study was conducted to assess the utility of measuring voriconazole blood levels with individualized dose adjustments. A total of 181 measurements with high-pressure liquid chromatography were performed during 2388 treatment days in 52 patients. A large variability in voriconazole trough blood levels was observed, ranging from 5.5 mg/L (a level possibly associated with toxicity) in 31% of cases. Lack of response to therapy was more frequent in patients with voriconazole levels 1 mg/L (15 [12%] of 39 patients; P=.02). Blood levels >1 mg/L were reached after increasing the voriconazole dosage, with complete resolution of infection in all 6 cases. Among 16 patients with voriconazole trough blood levels >5.5 mg/L, 5 patients (31%) presented with an encephalopathy, including 4 patients who were treated intravenously with a median voriconazole dosage of 8 mg/kg per day, whereas none of the patients with levels
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            In vivo evaluation of polymeric micellar paclitaxel formulation: toxicity and efficacy.

            Although the current clinical formulation of paclitaxel (Taxol) has a promising clinical activity against a wide variety of tumors, it has significant toxic side effects, some of which are associated with its formulation in a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of Cremophor EL and dehydrated alcohol. One of the problems associated with the intravenous administration of paclitaxel is its low solubility in water. Our study was designed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, toxicity and efficacy of a paclitaxel (Genexol)-containing biodegradable polymeric micellar system (Genexol-PM) in comparison to Taxol. Genexol-PM was newly developed by using a low molecular weight, nontoxic and biodegradable amphiphilic diblock copolymer, monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(D,L-lactide) (mPEG-PDLLA) and paclitaxel (Genexol, Samyang Genex Co., Seoul, Korea). In a human cancer cell line model, Genexol-PM and Taxol showed comparable in vitro cytotoxicity against human ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR-3 and human breast cancer cell line MCF7. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of Genexol-PM and Taxol in nude mice was determined to be 60 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. The median lethal dose (LD(50)) in Sprague--Dawley rats was 205.4 mg/kg (male) and 221.6 mg/kg (female) for Genexol-PM, while 8.3 mg/kg (male) and 8.8 mg/kg (female) for Taxol. After intravenous administration of Genexol-PM in murine B16 melanoma-induced female SPF C57BL/6 mice at a dose of 50 mg/kg, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) was similar to Taxol((R)) at a dose of 20 mg/kg, but biodistribution of paclitaxel after administration of Genexol-PM showed 2 to 3-fold higher levels in tissues including liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs, heart and tumor as compared to Taxol. The in vivo antitumor efficacy of Genexol-PM as measured by reduction in tumor volume of SKOV-3 human ovarian cancer implanted in nude (nu/nu) athymic mice and MX-1 human breast cancer implanted in Tac:Cr:(NCr)-nu athymic mice was significantly greater than that of Taxol. The results of cytotoxicity, MTD, LD(50) and antitumor efficacy suggest that Genexol-PM may have a great advantage over present-day chemotherapy with Taxol.
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              Multicenter phase II trial of Genexol-PM, a Cremophor-free, polymeric micelle formulation of paclitaxel, in patients with metastatic breast cancer.

              Genexol-PM is a novel Cremophor EL-free polymeric micelle formulation of paclitaxel. This single arm, multicenter phase II study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Genexol-PM in patients with histologically confirmed metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Forty-one women received Genexol-PM by intravenous infusion at 300 mg/m2 over 3 h every 3 weeks without premedication until disease progression or intolerability. A total of 331 chemotherapy cycles were administered, with a median of 8 cycles per patient (range, 1-16). Overall response rate was 58.5% (95% CI: 43.5-72.3) with 5 complete responses and 19 partial responses. Thirty-seven patients who received Genexol-PM as a first-line therapy for their metastatic disease showed a response rate of 59.5% (95% CI: 43.5-73.7), and two responses were reported in four patients treated in the second-line setting for their metastatic disease. The median time to progression (TTP) for all patients was 9.0 months (range, 1.0-17.0+ months). Grade 3 non-hematologic toxicities included sensory peripheral neuropathy (51.2%), and myalgia (2.4%). Eight patients (19.5%) experienced hypersensitivity reactions, with grade 3 in two patients. Hematologic toxicities were grade 3 and 4 neutropenia (51.2 and 17.1%, respectively), and grade 1 and 2 thrombocytopenia (22.0%). Notably, no febrile neutropenia was observed. Genexol-PM appears a promising new paclitaxel in view of significant efficacies. Further trials with different dosing schedules, durations of delivery, or in combination with other drugs are warranted.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                13 May 2015
                : 9
                : 2609-2616
                [1 ]Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [2 ]Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [3 ]Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, CHA University School of Medicine and CHA Bundang Medical Center, Seongnam, Republic of Korea
                [4 ]Medical and Regulatory Affairs Team, Samyang Biopharmaceuticals Corporation, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Kyung-Sang Yu, Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744, Republic of Korea, Tel +82 2 2072 1920, Fax +82 2 742 9252, Email ksyu@ 123456snu.ac.kr

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2015 Chung et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                voriconazole, pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenetics, cyp2c19


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