Intestinal resection (IR) may lead to hyperoxaluria and nephrolithiasis. A rat model of IR was developed, in which kidney stones form. We describe the urine chemistries and histopathologic features. Rats underwent resection of 40-45 cm of distal ileum (n=16) or sham resection (SR) (n=8), and were then fed a 1% Na oxalate, 0.02% Ca diet. After 1 week on the diet, 24 h urine samples were obtained for stone chemistries. At 4-7 months after surgery, kidneys were examined grossly and by light microscopy. The extent and location of crystallization was assessed by polarized light. Histochemistry and infrared spectroscopy were used to determine crystal composition. IR rats had higher urine oxalate excretion (P<0.01) and concentration (P<0.001) than SR rats, and lower urine citrate excretion; only IR rats formed kidney stones (12/15 surviving rats). Tissue calcification was found only in kidneys from IR rats, located in the cortex (83% of kidneys), medulla (73%) and papillary tip (47%). Crystals, composed of CaOx, apatite, and calcium carbonate, filled collecting duct lumens, and were associated with tubular obstruction, and interstitial inflammation. Crystals in the papillary interstitium incited inflammation with tubular destruction and development of progressive papillary erosion. This new rat model of nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis resembles the pattern of urinary abnormalities and tissue calcification that may be seen in humans with small bowel resection. The model allows further studies of the mechanisms of renal crystal formation, and possible therapeutic interventions.