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      CD161 defines effector T cells that express light and respond to TL1A-DR3 signaling

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          Abstract

          Expression of NK cell markers identifies pro-inflammatory T cell subsets in the liver and intestinal immune compartments. Specifically, CD161 is expressed on Th17 cells which play an important role in the regulation of mucosal inflammation. In this study, we characterized human peripheral blood CD161+ T cells as an effector population partially resembling a gut T cell phenotype. CD161+ CD4+ T cells express the gut-associated TNF family member, LIGHT, and respond to crosslinking of DR3, a receptor to another gut-associated cytokine, TL1A. Robust IFN-γ production in response to DR3 signaling correlated with enhanced expression of surface DR3 on CD161+ T cells and co-stimulation with IL12 and IL18. CD161+ T cell effector function was directly demonstrated by activation of responder monocytes in co-culture leading to CD40 upregulation and CD14 downregulation. CD161+ T cells reciprocally responded to activated monocytes, inducing expression of activation marker, CD69, and production of IL2 and IFN-γ, further demonstrating effective CD161+ T cell cross-talk with monocytes. Finally, CD161 defined a subset of T cells that co-express CD56, a second NK marker. Our findings implicate human CD161+ T cells in gut-associated signaling mechanisms, and suggest a monocyte mediated effector function in mucosal inflammation.

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          Most cited references 49

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          Infliximab for induction and maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis.

          Infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against tumor necrosis factor alpha, is an established treatment for Crohn's disease but not ulcerative colitis. Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies--the Active Ulcerative Colitis Trials 1 and 2 (ACT 1 and ACT 2, respectively)--evaluated the efficacy of infliximab for induction and maintenance therapy in adults with ulcerative colitis. In each study, 364 patients with moderate-to-severe active ulcerative colitis despite treatment with concurrent medications received placebo or infliximab (5 mg or 10 mg per kilogram of body weight) intravenously at weeks 0, 2, and 6 and then every eight weeks through week 46 (in ACT 1) or week 22 (in ACT 2). Patients were followed for 54 weeks in ACT 1 and 30 weeks in ACT 2. In ACT 1, 69 percent of patients who received 5 mg of infliximab and 61 percent of those who received 10 mg had a clinical response at week 8, as compared with 37 percent of those who received placebo (P<0.001 for both comparisons with placebo). A response was defined as a decrease in the Mayo score of at least 3 points and at least 30 percent, with an accompanying decrease in the subscore for rectal bleeding of at least 1 point or an absolute rectal-bleeding subscore of 0 or 1. In ACT 2, 64 percent of patients who received 5 mg of infliximab and 69 percent of those who received 10 mg had a clinical response at week 8, as compared with 29 percent of those who received placebo (P<0.001 for both comparisons with placebo). In both studies, patients who received infliximab were more likely to have a clinical response at week 30 (P< or =0.002 for all comparisons). In ACT 1, more patients who received 5 mg or 10 mg of infliximab had a clinical response at week 54 (45 percent and 44 percent, respectively) than did those who received placebo (20 percent, P<0.001 for both comparisons). Patients with moderate-to-severe active ulcerative colitis treated with infliximab at weeks 0, 2, and 6 and every eight weeks thereafter were more likely to have a clinical response at weeks 8, 30, and 54 than were those receiving placebo. (ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00036439 and NCT00096655.) Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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            A short-term study of chimeric monoclonal antibody cA2 to tumor necrosis factor alpha for Crohn's disease. Crohn's Disease cA2 Study Group.

            Studies in animals and an open-label trial have suggested a role for antibodies to tumor necrosis factor alpha, specifically chimeric monoclonal antibody cA2, in the treatment of Crohn's disease. We conducted a 12-week multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of cA2 in 108 patients with moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease that was resistant to treatment. All had scores on the Crohn's Disease Activity Index between 220 and 400 (scores can range from 0 to about 600, with higher scores indicating more severe illness). Patients were randomly assigned to receive a single two-hour intravenous infusion of either placebo or cA2 in a dose of 5 mg per kilogram of body weight, 10 mg per kilogram, or 20 mg per kilogram. Clinical response, the primary end point, was defined as a reduction of 70 or more points in the score on the Crohn's Disease Activity Index at four weeks that was not accompanied by a change in any concomitant medications. At four weeks, 81 percent of the patients given 5 mg of cA2 per kilogram (22 of 27 patients), 50 percent of those given 10 mg of cA2 per kilogram (14 of 28), and 64 percent of those given 20 mg of cA2 per kilogram (18 of 28) had had a clinical response, as compared with 17 percent of patients in the placebo group (4 of 24) (p<0.001 for the comparison of the cA2 group as a whole with placebo). Thirty-three percent of the patients given cA2 went into remission (defined as a score below 150 on the Crohn's Disease Activity Index), as compared with 4 percent of the patients given placebo (P=0.005). At 12 weeks, 41 percent of the cA2-treated patients (34 of 83) had had a clinical response, as compared with 12 percent of the patients in the placebo group (3 of 25) (P=0.008). The rates of adverse effects were similar in the groups. A single infusion of cA2 was an effective short-term treatment in many patients with moderate-to-severe, treatment-resistant Crohn's disease.
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              The lymphotoxin beta receptor controls organogenesis and affinity maturation in peripheral lymphoid tissues.

              Lymphotoxin beta receptor (LTbetaR)-/- mice were created by gene targeting. LTbetaR-/- mice lacked Peyer's patches, colon-associated lymphoid tissues, and all lymph nodes. Mucosa patrolling alphaEbeta7high integrin+ T cells were virtually absent. Spleens lost marginal zones; T/B cell segregation and follicular dendritic cell networks were absent. Peanut agglutinin+ cells were aberrantly detectable around central arterioles. In contrast to TNF receptor p55-/- mice, antibody affinity maturation was impaired. Since LTbetaR-/- mice exhibit distinct defects when compared to LTalpha-/- and LTbeta-/- mice, it is suggested that the LTbetaR integrates signals from other TNF family members. Thus, the LTbetaR proves pivotal for the ontogeny of the secondary lymphoid tissues. Furthermore, affinity maturation is dependent on LTalpha1beta2 rather than on LTalpha3.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                1886
                122234
                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                EuJMI
                Akadémiai Kiadó, co-published with Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V.
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                1 March 2011
                : 1
                : 1
                : 70-79
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Inflammatory Bowel & Immunobiology Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, 90048, USA
                [ 2 ] Division of Molecular Immunology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, San Diego, CA, 92121, USA
                [ 3 ] Inflammatory Bowel & Immunobiology Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Blvd., Suite 4065, Los Angeles, CA, 90048, USA
                Author notes
                [* ] +1 (310) 423-7724, +1 (310) 423-0224, targans@ 123456cshs.org
                Article
                9
                10.1556/EuJMI.1.2011.1.9
                3279928
                22348196
                Categories
                Original Articles

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