Recently more information has emerged on possible adverse health effects associated with some building and furnishing materials, leading to or initiating legislative changes towards their reduction or elimination in many parts of the world. However, more general knowledge of the health risks associated with building and furnishing materials could make a significant contribution to improvements in indoor air quality. A study was set up to evaluate the level of knowledge in the relevant literature and the general population (from New Zealand, United Kingdom and the United States), and New Zealand architectural professionals. The results for vinyl and linoleum are presented, these being two flooring materials very similar in terms of appearance and application, but different in terms of chemical content and possible impact on health. The article indicates significant issues with the level of reported knowledge, with participants from the general population struggling to differentiate between vinyl and linoleum, and professionals reporting more prevalent use of vinyl, which they rate as less healthy.