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BOND: Basic OligoNucleotide Design

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      Abstract

      Background

      DNA microarrays have become ubiquitous in biological and medical research. The most difficult problem that needs to be solved is the design of DNA oligonucleotides that (i) are highly specific, that is, bind only to the intended target, (ii) cover the highest possible number of genes, that is, all genes that allow such unique regions, and (iii) are computed fast. None of the existing programs meet all these criteria.

      Results

      We introduce a new approach with our software program BOND (Basic OligoNucleotide Design). According to Kane’s criteria for oligo design, BOND computes highly specific DNA oligonucleotides, for all the genes that admit unique probes, while running orders of magnitude faster than the existing programs. The same approach enables us to introduce also an evaluation procedure that correctly measures the quality of the oligonucleotides. Extensive comparison is performed to prove our claims. BOND is flexible, easy to use, requires no additional software, and is freely available for non-commercial use from http://www.csd.uwo.ca/∼ilie/BOND/.

      Conclusions

      We provide an improved solution to the important problem of oligonucleotide design, including a thorough evaluation of oligo design programs. We hope BOND will become a useful tool for researchers in biological and medical sciences by making the microarray procedures faster and more accurate.

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      Most cited references 32

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      A new approach to rapid sequence comparison, basic local alignment search tool (BLAST), directly approximates alignments that optimize a measure of local similarity, the maximal segment pair (MSP) score. Recent mathematical results on the stochastic properties of MSP scores allow an analysis of the performance of this method as well as the statistical significance of alignments it generates. The basic algorithm is simple and robust; it can be implemented in a number of ways and applied in a variety of contexts including straightforward DNA and protein sequence database searches, motif searches, gene identification searches, and in the analysis of multiple regions of similarity in long DNA sequences. In addition to its flexibility and tractability to mathematical analysis, BLAST is an order of magnitude faster than existing sequence comparison tools of comparable sensitivity.
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        Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs.

        The BLAST programs are widely used tools for searching protein and DNA databases for sequence similarities. For protein comparisons, a variety of definitional, algorithmic and statistical refinements described here permits the execution time of the BLAST programs to be decreased substantially while enhancing their sensitivity to weak similarities. A new criterion for triggering the extension of word hits, combined with a new heuristic for generating gapped alignments, yields a gapped BLAST program that runs at approximately three times the speed of the original. In addition, a method is introduced for automatically combining statistically significant alignments produced by BLAST into a position-specific score matrix, and searching the database using this matrix. The resulting Position-Specific Iterated BLAST (PSI-BLAST) program runs at approximately the same speed per iteration as gapped BLAST, but in many cases is much more sensitive to weak but biologically relevant sequence similarities. PSI-BLAST is used to uncover several new and interesting members of the BRCT superfamily.
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          A unified view of polymer, dumbbell, and oligonucleotide DNA nearest-neighbor thermodynamics.

           J SantaLucia (1998)
          A unified view of polymer, dumbbell, and oligonucleotide nearest-neighbor (NN) thermodynamics is presented. DNA NN DeltaG degrees 37 parameters from seven laboratories are presented in the same format so that careful comparisons can be made. The seven studies used data from natural polymers, synthetic polymers, oligonucleotide dumbbells, and oligonucleotide duplexes to derive NN parameters; used different methods of data analysis; used different salt concentrations; and presented the NN thermodynamics in different formats. As a result of these differences, there has been much confusion regarding the NN thermodynamics of DNA polymers and oligomers. Herein I show that six of the studies are actually in remarkable agreement with one another and explanations are provided in cases where discrepancies remain. Further, a single set of parameters, derived from 108 oligonucleotide duplexes, adequately describes polymer and oligomer thermodynamics. Empirical salt dependencies are also derived for oligonucleotides and polymers.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of Computer Science, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A5B7, Canada
            [2 ]Department of Computing and Software, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1, Canada
            [3 ]Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1, Canada
            Contributors
            Journal
            BMC Bioinformatics
            BMC Bioinformatics
            BMC Bioinformatics
            BioMed Central
            1471-2105
            2013
            27 February 2013
            : 14
            : 69
            23444904
            3648450
            1471-2105-14-69
            10.1186/1471-2105-14-69
            Copyright ©2013 Ilie et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

            This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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