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      Assembling the modern Great Basin mammal biota: insights from molecular biogeography and the fossil record

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      Journal of Mammalogy

      American Society of Mammalogists (ASM)

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          Mammals on Mountaintops: Nonequilibrium Insular Biogeography

           James H Brown (1971)
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            Phylogeography's past, present, and future: 10 years after Avise, 2000.

            Approximately 20 years ago, Avise and colleagues proposed the integration of phylogenetics and population genetics for investigating the connection between micro- and macroevolutionary phenomena. The new field was termed phylogeography. Since the naming of the field, the statistical rigor of phylogeography has increased, in large part due to concurrent advances in coalescent theory which enabled model-based parameter estimation and hypothesis testing. The next phase will involve phylogeography increasingly becoming the integrative and comparative multi-taxon endeavor that it was originally conceived to be. This exciting convergence will likely involve combining spatially-explicit multiple taxon coalescent models, genomic studies of natural selection, ecological niche modeling, studies of ecological speciation, community assembly and functional trait evolution. This ambitious synthesis will allow us to determine the causal links between geography, climate change, ecological interactions and the evolution and composition of taxa across whole communities and assemblages. Although such integration presents analytical and computational challenges that will only be intensified by the growth of genomic data in non-model taxa, the rapid development of "likelihood-free" approximate Bayesian methods should permit parameter estimation and hypotheses testing using complex evolutionary demographic models and genomic phylogeographic data. We first review the conceptual beginnings of phylogeography and its accomplishments and then illustrate how it evolved into a statistically rigorous enterprise with the concurrent rise of coalescent theory. Subsequently, we discuss ways in which model-based phylogeography can interface with various subfields to become one of the most integrative fields in all of ecology and evolutionary biology.
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              Genetic footprints of demographic expansion in North America, but not Amazonia, during the Late Quaternary.

              The biotic consequences of climate change have attracted considerable attention. In particular, the "refugial debate" centers on the possible retraction of habitats to limited areas that may have served as refuges for many associated species, especially during glaciations of the Quaternary. One prediction of such scenarios is that populations must have experienced substantial growth accompanying climatic amelioration and the occupation of newly expanded habitats. We used coalescence theory to examine the genetic evidence, or lack thereof, for late Pleistocene refugia of boreal North American and tropical Amazonian mammals. We found substantial and concordant evidence of demographic expansion in North American mammals, particularly at higher latitudes. In contrast, small mammals from western Amazonia appear to have experienced limited or no demographic expansion after the Late Pleistocene. Thus, demographic responses to climate change can be tracked genetically and appear to vary substantially across the latitudinal gradient of biotic diversity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Mammalogy
                Journal of Mammalogy
                American Society of Mammalogists (ASM)
                0022-2372
                1545-1542
                December 2014
                December 2014
                : 95
                : 6
                : 1107-1127
                Article
                10.1644/14-MAMM-S-064
                © 2014

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