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      The stakeholders’ perceptions of the requirements of implementing innovative educational approaches in nursing: a qualitative content analysis study


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          Improving the competencies of nurses requires improving educational methods through the use of novel methods in teaching and learning. We aim to explore the perceptions of stakeholders (including nursing education directors, faculty members and nursing students) of the requirements of implementing innovative educational approaches in nursing.


          In this qualitative descriptive study, 19 participants, including educational directors, faculty members, and undergraduate and graduate nursing students, were selected through the purposeful sampling method. Achieving the theoretical saturation in extracted categories was considered as a criterion for determining the sample size and the completion of sampling. The data were collected from December 2019 to May 2020 in nursing schools of Tehran, Iran, through in-depth semi-structured individual face-to-face interviews and were then analyzed based on the Graneheim and Lundman method.


          Using qualitative content analysis, eight sub-themes and three themes were extracted. The extracted themes were ‘novel educational policymaking’, ‘Innovative education-oriented platform’, and ‘managing barriers of innovative educational approaches’.


          Developing and implementing innovative educational approaches entail providing appropriate context, structure, and required facilities by the policymaking system and educational authorities. In addition, developing capacity and related competencies of faculty members and students as the major stakeholders in employing these approaches is crucial.

          Supplementary Information

          The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12912-021-00647-7.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Three approaches to qualitative content analysis.

          Content analysis is a widely used qualitative research technique. Rather than being a single method, current applications of content analysis show three distinct approaches: conventional, directed, or summative. All three approaches are used to interpret meaning from the content of text data and, hence, adhere to the naturalistic paradigm. The major differences among the approaches are coding schemes, origins of codes, and threats to trustworthiness. In conventional content analysis, coding categories are derived directly from the text data. With a directed approach, analysis starts with a theory or relevant research findings as guidance for initial codes. A summative content analysis involves counting and comparisons, usually of keywords or content, followed by the interpretation of the underlying context. The authors delineate analytic procedures specific to each approach and techniques addressing trustworthiness with hypothetical examples drawn from the area of end-of-life care.
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            Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness.

            Qualitative content analysis as described in published literature shows conflicting opinions and unsolved issues regarding meaning and use of concepts, procedures and interpretation. This paper provides an overview of important concepts (manifest and latent content, unit of analysis, meaning unit, condensation, abstraction, content area, code, category and theme) related to qualitative content analysis; illustrates the use of concepts related to the research procedure; and proposes measures to achieve trustworthiness (credibility, dependability and transferability) throughout the steps of the research procedure. Interpretation in qualitative content analysis is discussed in light of Watzlawick et al.'s [Pragmatics of Human Communication. A Study of Interactional Patterns, Pathologies and Paradoxes. W.W. Norton & Company, New York, London] theory of communication.
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              Health professionals for a new century: transforming education to strengthen health systems in an interdependent world.


                Author and article information

                a-ghorbani@razi.tums.ac.ir , ghorbaniazam98@gmail.com
                BMC Nurs
                BMC Nurs
                BMC Nursing
                BioMed Central (London )
                20 July 2021
                20 July 2021
                : 20
                [1 ]GRID grid.411705.6, ISNI 0000 0001 0166 0922, School of Nursing and Midwifery, , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tohid Square, 1419733171 Tehran, Iran
                [2 ]GRID grid.411746.1, ISNI 0000 0004 4911 7066, Nursing Care Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, , Iran University of Medical Sciences, ; Rashid Yasemi st, Valiasr St, 1996713883 Tehran, Iran
                [3 ]GRID grid.411705.6, ISNI 0000 0001 0166 0922, Department of Foreign Languages, , Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), TUMS International College, ; Keshavarz Blvd, 1415913311 Tehran, Iran
                [4 ]GRID grid.412505.7, ISNI 0000 0004 0612 5912, School of Nursing and Midwifery, , Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Safaeih, Fallahi, ; 8916877443 Yazd, Iran
                [5 ]GRID grid.411705.6, ISNI 0000 0001 0166 0922, Medical Surgical Nursing Department, School of Nursing and Midwifery, , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, ; Tohid Square, 1419733171 Tehran, Iran
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100004484, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Health Services;
                Award ID: 9421199002
                Award Recipient :
                Research Article
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                © The Author(s) 2021


                education research, educational techniques, nursing, qualitative research


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