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      Systematic review of the psychological consequences of terrorism among child victims

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      International Review of Victimology

      SAGE Publications

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          Most cited references 77

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          Child/adolescent behavioral and emotional problems: Implications of cross-informant correlations for situational specificity.

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            A national survey of stress reactions after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.

            People who are not present at a traumatic event may also experience stress reactions. We assessed the immediate mental health effects of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. Using random-digit dialing three to five days after September 11, we interviewed a nationally representative sample of 569 U.S. adults about their reactions to the terrorist attacks and their perceptions of their children's reactions. Forty-four percent of the adults reported one or more substantial stress symptoms; 91 percent had one or more symptoms to at least some degree. Respondents throughout the country reported stress syndromes. They coped by talking with others (98 percent), turning to religion (90 percent), participating in group activities (60 percent), and making donations (36 percent). Eighty-five percent of parents reported that they or other adults in the household had talked to their children about the attacks for an hour or more; 34 percent restricted their children's television viewing. Thirty-five percent of children had one or more stress symptoms, and 47 percent were worried about their own safety or the safety of loved ones. After the September 11 terrorist attacks, Americans across the country, including children, had substantial symptoms of stress. Even clinicians who practice in regions that are far from the recent attacks should be prepared to assist people with trauma-related symptoms of stress.
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              A multivariate model of gender differences in adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems.

              Gender differences observed in interpersonal and self-critical vulnerabilities, reactivity to stressful life events, quality of relationships, and self-concepts inform a multivariate theoretical model of the moderating effects of gender on internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescence. To test this model, data were collected in a 1-year prospective study from an ethnically diverse sample of 460 middle school students. Increases in girls' internalizing symptoms, compared with boys', were partly explained by greater stability in girls' interpersonal vulnerabilities and greater magnitude in coefficients linking girls' relationships with parents and peers and internalizing problems. Boys' risks for externalizing problems, compared with girls', were partly explained by the greater stability in boys' vulnerability to self-criticism. Coefficients for most pathways in the model are similar for boys and girls.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Research Group on Child and Adolescent Victimization (GReVIA), Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour (IR3C), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
                Journal
                International Review of Victimology
                International Review of Victimology
                SAGE Publications
                0269-7580
                2047-9433
                April 22 2013
                February 12 2013
                May 2013
                : 19
                : 2
                : 181-199
                10.1177/0269758012472771
                © 2013

                http://journals.sagepub.com/page/policies/text-and-data-mining-license

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