Blog
About

111
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2006, featuring colorectal cancer trends and impact of interventions (risk factors, screening, and treatment) to reduce future rates.

      Lancet

      ethnology, epidemiology, United States, Time Factors, Risk Factors, Registries, therapy, prevention & control, mortality, Neoplasms, trends, Mortality, Middle Aged, Male, Incidence, Humans, Female, Early Diagnosis, Computer Simulation, Colorectal Neoplasms, Aged

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The American Cancer Society, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) collaborate annually to provide updated information regarding cancer occurrence and trends in the United States. This year's report includes trends in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and death rates and highlights the use of microsimulation modeling as a tool for interpreting past trends and projecting future trends to assist in cancer control planning and policy decisions. Information regarding invasive cancers was obtained from the NCI, CDC, and NAACCR; and information on deaths was obtained from the CDC's National Center for Health Statistics. Annual percentage changes in the age-standardized incidence and death rates (based on the year 2000 US population standard) for all cancers combined and for the top 15 cancers were estimated by joinpoint analysis of long-term trends (1975-2006) and for short-term fixed-interval trends (1997-2006). All statistical tests were 2-sided. Both incidence and death rates from all cancers combined significantly declined (P < .05) in the most recent time period for men and women overall and for most racial and ethnic populations. These decreases were driven largely by declines in both incidence and death rates for the 3 most common cancers in men (ie, lung and prostate cancers and CRC) and for 2 of the 3 leading cancers in women (ie, breast cancer and CRC). The long-term trends for lung cancer mortality in women had smaller and smaller increases until 2003, when there was a change to a nonsignificant decline. Microsimulation modeling demonstrates that declines in CRC death rates are consistent with a relatively large contribution from screening and with a smaller but demonstrable impact of risk factor reductions and improved treatments. These declines are projected to continue if risk factor modification, screening, and treatment remain at current rates, but they could be accelerated further with favorable trends in risk factors and higher utilization of screening and optimal treatment. Although the decrease in overall cancer incidence and death rates is encouraging, rising incidence and mortality for some cancers are of concern. Copyright 2009 American Cancer Society.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 10

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Screening for colorectal cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement.

            (2008)
          Update of the 2002 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation statement on screening for colorectal cancer. To update its recommendation, the USPSTF commissioned 2 studies: 1) a targeted systematic evidence review on 4 selected questions relating to test characteristics and benefits and harms of screening technologies, and 2) a decision analytic modeling analysis using population modeling techniques to compare the expected health outcomes and resource requirements of available screening modalities when used in a programmatic way over time. The USPSTF recommends screening for colorectal cancer using fecal occult blood testing, sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy in adults, beginning at age 50 years and continuing until age 75 years. The risks and benefits of these screening methods vary. (A recommendation). The USPSTF recommends against routine screening for colorectal cancer in adults 76 to 85 years of age. There may be considerations that support colorectal cancer screening in an individual patient. (C recommendation). The USPSTF recommends against screening for colorectal cancer in adults older than age 85 years. (D recommendation). The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient to assess the benefits and harms of computed tomographic colonography and fecal DNA testing as screening modalities for colorectal cancer. (I statement).
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as anticancer agents: mechanistic, pharmacologic, and clinical issues.

            Numerous experimental, epidemiologic, and clinical studies suggest that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), particularly the highly selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors, have promise as anticancer agents. NSAIDs restore normal apoptosis in human adenomatous colorectal polyps and in various cancer cell lines that have lost adenomatous polyposis coli gene function. NSAIDs also inhibit angiogenesis in cell culture and rodent models of angiogenesis. Many epidemiologic studies have found that long-term use of NSAIDs is associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, adenomatous polyps, and, to some extent, other cancers. Two NSAIDs, sulindac and celecoxib, have been found to inhibit the growth of adenomatous polyps and cause regression of existing polyps in randomized trials of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). However, unresolved questions about the safety, efficacy, optimal treatment regimen, and mechanism of action of NSAIDs currently limit their clinical application to the prevention of polyposis in FAP patients. Moreover, the development of safe and effective drugs for chemoprevention is complicated by the potential of even rare, serious toxicity to offset the benefit of treatment, particularly when the drug is administered to healthy people who have low annual risk of developing the disease for which treatment is intended. This review considers generic approaches to improve the balance between benefits and risks associated with the use of NSAIDs in chemoprevention. We critically examine the published experimental, clinical, and epidemiologic literature on NSAIDs and cancer, especially that regarding colorectal cancer, and identify strategies to overcome the various logistic and scientific barriers that impede clinical trials of NSAIDs for cancer prevention. Finally, we suggest research opportunities that may help to accelerate the future clinical application of NSAIDs for cancer prevention or treatment.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              The evolution of cancer of the colon and rectum.

               B C Morson,  T Muto,  H Bussey (1975)
              The malignant potential of adenomas of the colon and rectum varies with size, histological type and grade of epithelial atypia. The adenomatous polyp is usually small and has a low malignant potential, whereas tumors with a villous structure are usually larger and have a much higher cancer rate. Severe atypia is more common in villous adenomas than in adenomatous polyps. Evidence is presented which suggests that most cancers of the colon and rectum have evolved through the polyp-cancer sequence although the majority of adenomas do not becoma cancerous during a normal adult life span. The slow evolution of the polyp-cancer sequence is stressed. The implications of the polyp-cancer sequence for the design of cancer prevention programmes and the study of the aetiology of large bowel cancer are discussed.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                19998273
                3619726
                10.1002/cncr.24760

                Comments

                Comment on this article