The prophylactic efficacy of statin pretreatment for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains controversial. The aim of the study was to perform a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the effectiveness of short-term moderate or high-dose rosuvastatin pretreatment in preventing CIN.
We included RCTs comparing short-term moderate or high-dose rosuvastatin treatment versus low-dose rosuvastatin treatment or placebo for preventing CIN. The primary endpoint was the incidence of CIN within 2 to 5 days after contrast administration, and related-parameters including serum creatinine (SCr), cystatin C (CysC), hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), urine microalbumin (mALB) were also extracted.
Fifteen RCTs with a total of 2673 patients were identified and analyzed. Patients who received moderate or high-dose rosuvastatin pretreatment had a 55% lower risk of CIN compared with low-dose rosuvastatin pretreatment or placebo group based on a fixed effect model (RR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.35–0.58, P < .0001). The benefit of moderate or high-dose rosuvastatin was consistent in both comparisons with low-dose rosuvastatin (RR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.27–0.59, P < .0001) or placebo (RR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.35–0.58, P < .0001). And moderate (20 mg) or high dose (≥40 mg) rosuvastatin significantly reduced the incidence of CIN compared with the control (RR = 0.39, 95% CI 0.29–0.54, P < .0001, RR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.37–0.85, P = .006, respectively). Subgroup analysis showed that moderate or high-dose rosuvastatin pretreatment could decrease the incidence of CIN in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) (RR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.30–0.93, P = .03) or diabetes mellitus (DM) (RR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.31–0.86, P = .01) or acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing PCI (RR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.35–0.76, P = .0009) or in studies which received mean contrast volume ≥110 mL (RR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.32–0.58, P < .0001). The SCr, CysC, hs-CRP, and mALB after the operation in the moderate or high-dose rosuvastatin group were lower than those of low-dose rosuvastatin group.