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      Efficacy of short-term moderate or high-dose rosuvastatin in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy : A meta-analysis of 15 randomized controlled trials

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          Abstract

          Background:

          The prophylactic efficacy of statin pretreatment for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains controversial. The aim of the study was to perform a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the effectiveness of short-term moderate or high-dose rosuvastatin pretreatment in preventing CIN.

          Methods:

          We included RCTs comparing short-term moderate or high-dose rosuvastatin treatment versus low-dose rosuvastatin treatment or placebo for preventing CIN. The primary endpoint was the incidence of CIN within 2 to 5 days after contrast administration, and related-parameters including serum creatinine (SCr), cystatin C (CysC), hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), urine microalbumin (mALB) were also extracted.

          Results:

          Fifteen RCTs with a total of 2673 patients were identified and analyzed. Patients who received moderate or high-dose rosuvastatin pretreatment had a 55% lower risk of CIN compared with low-dose rosuvastatin pretreatment or placebo group based on a fixed effect model (RR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.35–0.58, P < .0001). The benefit of moderate or high-dose rosuvastatin was consistent in both comparisons with low-dose rosuvastatin (RR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.27–0.59, P < .0001) or placebo (RR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.35–0.58, P < .0001). And moderate (20 mg) or high dose (≥40 mg) rosuvastatin significantly reduced the incidence of CIN compared with the control (RR = 0.39, 95% CI 0.29–0.54, P < .0001, RR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.37–0.85, P = .006, respectively). Subgroup analysis showed that moderate or high-dose rosuvastatin pretreatment could decrease the incidence of CIN in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) (RR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.30–0.93, P = .03) or diabetes mellitus (DM) (RR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.31–0.86, P = .01) or acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing PCI (RR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.35–0.76, P = .0009) or in studies which received mean contrast volume ≥110 mL (RR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.32–0.58, P < .0001). The SCr, CysC, hs-CRP, and mALB after the operation in the moderate or high-dose rosuvastatin group were lower than those of low-dose rosuvastatin group.

          Conclusion:

          This meta-analysis demonstrated that moderate or high-dose rosuvastatin treatment could reduce the incidence of CIN in patients undergoing CAG or PCI. Moreover, moderate or high-dose rosuvastatin would be beneficial in high-risk patients with CKD or DM or undergoing PCI.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Contrast-induced acute kidney injury.

          Cardiac angiography and coronary/vascular interventions depend on iodinated contrast media and consequently pose the risk of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). This is an important complication that accounts for a significant number of cases of hospital-acquired renal failure, with adverse effects on prognosis and health care costs. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of contrast-induced AKI, baseline renal function measurement, risk assessment, identification of high-risk patients, contrast medium use, and preventive strategies are discussed in this report. An advanced algorithm is suggested for the risk stratification and management of contrast-induced AKI as it relates to patients undergoing cardiovascular procedures. Contrast-induced AKI is likely to remain a significant challenge for cardiologists in the future because the patient population is aging and chronic kidney disease and diabetes are becoming more common.
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            Pathophysiology of contrast medium-induced nephropathy.

            Contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a well-known cause of acute renal failure, but the development of CIN remains poorly understood. A number of studies have been performed with the one aim, to shed some light onto the pathophysiology of CIN. These have led to manifold interpretations and sometimes contradicting conclusions. This review critically surveys mechanisms believed to mediate CIN by highlighting the complex pathophysiologic entity, including altered rheologic properties, perturbation of renal hemodynamics, regional hypoxia, auto- and paracrine factors [adenosine, endothelin, and reactive oxygen species (ROS)], and direct cytotoxic effects. Moreover, the importance of physicochemical properties of contrast media are made clear. The more recently developed iso-osmolar contrast media are dimers, not monomers as the widely used nonionic low osmolar contrast media. The dimers have physicochemical features different from other contrast media which may be of clinical importance, not only with respect to osmolality. The viscosity of the commercially available dimers is considerably higher than blood. Many experimental studies provide evidence for a greater perturbation in renal functions by dimeric contrast media in comparison to nonionic monomeric contrast media. Clinical trials have yielded conflicting results.
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              Volume-to-creatinine clearance ratio: a pharmacokinetically based risk factor for prediction of early creatinine increase after percutaneous coronary intervention.

              This study sought to validate a pharmacokinetically derived measure of the risk of an early increase in serum creatinine after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The ratio of the volume of contrast media to the creatinine clearance (V/CrCl) has been shown to correlate with the area under the curve of contrast media concentration over time. We calculated V/CrCl in 3,179 consecutive patients undergoing PCI. An increase in serum creatinine of >0.5 mg/dl by 24 to 48 h was considered abnormal. Receiver-operator characteristic methods were used to identify the optimal sensitivity and specificity for the observed range of V/CrCl. The predictive value of V/CrCl for the risk of an early increase in creatinine was assessed using multivariable logistic regression. The overall incidence of an abnormal, early increase in creatinine was 1.5%. The mean and median values of V/CrCl for patients with (mean 5.2 +/- 4.4, median 4.3, interquartile range 2.7 to 6.0) and without (mean 3.0 +/- 2.0, median 2.5, interquartile range 1.7 to 3.8) an early creatinine increase were each significantly (p or =3.7 remained significantly associated with an early abnormal increase in serum creatinine (odds ratio 3.84; 95% confidence interval 2.0 to 7.3, p 3.7 was a significant and independent predictor of an early abnormal increase in serum creatinine after PCI in this unselected patient population.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                MEDI
                Medicine
                Wolters Kluwer Health
                0025-7974
                1536-5964
                July 2017
                07 July 2017
                : 96
                : 27
                Affiliations
                [a ]Graduate School of Tianjin Medical University
                [b ]Department of Cardiology, Tianjin Chest Hospital, Tianjin, China.
                Author notes
                []Correspondence: Naikuan Fu, Tianjin Chest Hospital, Tianjin, China (e-mail: Cdrfnk@ 123456163.com ).
                Article
                MD-D-17-02186 07384
                10.1097/MD.0000000000007384
                5502163
                28682890
                Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives License 4.0, which allows for redistribution, commercial and non-commercial, as long as it is passed along unchanged and in whole, with credit to the author. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0

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                Research Article
                Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
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