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      Sex differences in stroke: epidemiology, clinical presentation, medical care, and outcomes

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          Abstract

          Stroke has a greater effect on women than men because women have more events and are less likely to recover. Age-specific stroke rates are higher in men, but, because of their longer life expectancy and much higher incidence at older ages, women have more stroke events than men. With the exception of subarachnoid haemorrhage, there is little evidence of sex differences in stroke subtype or severity. Although several reports found that women are less likely to receive some in-hospital interventions, most differences disappear after age and comorbidities are accounted for. However, sex disparities persist in the use of thrombolytic treatment (with alteplase) and lipid testing. Functional outcomes and quality of life after stroke are consistently poorer in women, despite adjustment for baseline differences in age, prestroke function, and comorbidities. Here, we comprehensively review the epidemiology, clinical presentation, medical care, and outcomes of stroke in women.

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          Most cited references134

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          The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report.

          "The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure" provides a new guideline for hypertension prevention and management. The following are the key messages(1) In persons older than 50 years, systolic blood pressure (BP) of more than 140 mm Hg is a much more important cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor than diastolic BP; (2) The risk of CVD, beginning at 115/75 mm Hg, doubles with each increment of 20/10 mm Hg; individuals who are normotensive at 55 years of age have a 90% lifetime risk for developing hypertension; (3) Individuals with a systolic BP of 120 to 139 mm Hg or a diastolic BP of 80 to 89 mm Hg should be considered as prehypertensive and require health-promoting lifestyle modifications to prevent CVD; (4) Thiazide-type diuretics should be used in drug treatment for most patients with uncomplicated hypertension, either alone or combined with drugs from other classes. Certain high-risk conditions are compelling indications for the initial use of other antihypertensive drug classes (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers); (5) Most patients with hypertension will require 2 or more antihypertensive medications to achieve goal BP (<140/90 mm Hg, or <130/80 mm Hg for patients with diabetes or chronic kidney disease); (6) If BP is more than 20/10 mm Hg above goal BP, consideration should be given to initiating therapy with 2 agents, 1 of which usually should be a thiazide-type diuretic; and (7) The most effective therapy prescribed by the most careful clinician will control hypertension only if patients are motivated. Motivation improves when patients have positive experiences with and trust in the clinician. Empathy builds trust and is a potent motivator. Finally, in presenting these guidelines, the committee recognizes that the responsible physician's judgment remains paramount.
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            Metabolic syndrome and risk of cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis.

            The use of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome has led to inconsistent results on the association between the metabolic syndrome and risk of cardiovascular disease. We examined the association between the metabolic syndrome and risk of cardiovascular disease. A MEDLINE search (1966-April 2005) was conducted to identify prospective studies that examined the association between the metabolic syndrome and risk of cardiovascular disease. Information on sample size, participant characteristics, metabolic syndrome definition, follow-up duration, and endpoint assessment was abstracted. Data from 21 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included. Individuals with the metabolic syndrome, compared to those without, had an increased mortality from all causes (relative risk [RR] 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-1.56) and cardiovascular disease (RR 1.74; 95% CI, 1.29-2.35); as well as an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease (RR 1.53; 95% CI, 1.26-1.87), coronary heart disease (RR 1.52; 95% CI, 1.37-1.69) and stroke (RR 1.76; 95% CI, 1.37-2.25). The relative risk of cardiovascular disease associated with the metabolic syndrome was higher in women compared with men and higher in studies that used the World Health Organization definition compared with studies that used the Adult Treatment Panel III definition. This analysis strongly suggests that the metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality, as well as all-cause mortality. The detection, prevention, and treatment of the underlying risk factors of the metabolic syndrome should become an important approach for the reduction of the cardiovascular disease burden in the general population.
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              Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome Among US Adults

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                The Lancet Neurology
                The Lancet Neurology
                Elsevier BV
                14744422
                October 2008
                October 2008
                : 7
                : 10
                : 915-926
                Article
                10.1016/S1474-4422(08)70193-5
                2665267
                18722812
                f9ed04f1-1d9f-49f5-bb3a-108f669f87f4
                © 2008

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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