Mouse bone marrow erythropoiesis is homeostatic, whereas after acute anemia, bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4)-dependent stress erythropoiesis develops in the spleen. The aim of this work was to compare spleen stress erythropoiesis and bone marrow erythropoiesis in a mouse model of zymosan-induced generalized inflammation, which induces long-lasting anemia and to evaluate the ability of erythropoietin (Epo) injections to correct anemia in this setting. The effects of zymosan and/or Epo injections on erythroid precursor maturation and apoptosis, serum interferon-γ levels, hematologic parameters, and spleen BMP4 expression were analyzed, as well as the effect of zymosan on red blood cell half-life. We found that bone marrow erythropoiesis is suppressed by inflammation and does not respond to Epo administration, despite repression of erythroblast apoptosis. On the contrary, a robust erythropoietic response takes place in the spleen after Epo injections in both control and zymosan-induced generalized inflammation mice. This specific response implies Epo-mediated induction of BMP4 expression by F4/80(+) spleen macrophages, proliferation of stress burst-forming units-erythroid, and increased number of spleen erythroblasts. It allows only partial recovery of anemia, probably because of peripheral destruction of mature red cells. It is not clear whether similar BMP4-dependent stress erythropoiesis can occur in human bone marrow after Epo injections.