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      Hacia la cobertura universal en salud: protección social para todos en México

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          Abstract

          México alcanzará la cobertura universal en salud en 2012. El seguro nacional de salud denominado Seguro Popular, introducido en 2003, garantiza el acceso a un paquete de servicios de salud integrales con protección financiera a más de 50 millones de mexicanos previamente excluidos de la seguridad social. La cobertura universal en México es sinónimo de protección social en salud. Este informe analiza el camino hacia la cobertura universal en sus tres dimensiones de protección: a) contra riesgos para la salud, b) de los pacientes a través de la garantía de calidad de la atención a la salud y c) contra las consecuencias financieras de la enfermedad y las lesiones. Se presenta una discusión conceptual sobre la transición de una seguridad social basada en la condición laboral a la protección social en salud, que implica el acceso a una atención integral de la salud como derecho universal basado en la ciudadanía, plataforma ética de la reforma mexicana. Se describen asimismo las condiciones que llevaron a la reforma, así como su diseño y puesta en marcha, y se discute el proceso de implantación a nueve años de iniciado y las evidencias que dieron origen a actualizaciones y mejoras del programa original. El núcleo del informe se centra en los efectos e impactos de la reforma que se desprenden de la literatura sobre el tema, que incluye artículos científicos y otras publicaciones disponibles. La evidencia indica que el Seguro Popular está mejorando el acceso a los servicios de salud y reduciendo la prevalencia de los gastos en salud catastróficos y empobrecedores, especialmente entre los pobres. Estudios recientes muestran asimismo una mejora en la cobertura efectiva. También se discuten los desafíos prevalentes, incluyendo la necesidad de traducir los recursos financieros en servicios de salud más efectivos, equitativos y sensibles a las expectativas de los usuarios. Se requiere una nueva generación de reformas que incluya medidas sistémicas para consolidar la reorganización del sistema de salud por funciones. El artículo concluye con una discusión sobre las implicaciones de la búsqueda de la cobertura universal de salud en México y su importancia para otros países de ingresos bajos y medios.

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          Expansion of cancer care and control in countries of low and middle income: a call to action.

          Substantial inequalities exist in cancer survival rates across countries. In addition to prevention of new cancers by reduction of risk factors, strategies are needed to close the gap between developed and developing countries in cancer survival and the effects of the disease on human suffering. We challenge the public health community's assumption that cancers will remain untreated in poor countries, and note the analogy to similarly unfounded arguments from more than a decade ago against provision of HIV treatment. In resource-constrained countries without specialised services, experience has shown that much can be done to prevent and treat cancer by deployment of primary and secondary caregivers, use of off-patent drugs, and application of regional and global mechanisms for financing and procurement. Furthermore, several middle-income countries have included cancer treatment in national health insurance coverage with a focus on people living in poverty. These strategies can reduce costs, increase access to health services, and strengthen health systems to meet the challenge of cancer and other diseases. In 2009, we formed the Global Task Force on Expanded Access to Cancer Care and Control in Developing Countries, which is composed of leaders from the global health and cancer care communities, and is dedicated to proposal, implementation, and evaluation of strategies to advance this agenda. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Early appraisal of China's huge and complex health-care reforms.

            China's 3 year, CN¥850 billion (US$125 billion) reform plan, launched in 2009, marked the first phase towards achieving comprehensive universal health coverage by 2020. The government's undertaking of systemic reform and its affirmation of its role in financing health care together with priorities for prevention, primary care, and redistribution of finance and human resources to poor regions are positive developments. Accomplishing nearly universal insurance coverage in such a short time is commendable. However, transformation of money and insurance coverage into cost-effective services is difficult when delivery of health care is hindered by waste, inefficiencies, poor quality of services, and scarcity and maldistribution of the qualified workforce. China must reform its incentive structures for providers, improve governance of public hospitals, and institute a stronger regulatory system, but these changes have been slowed by opposition from stakeholders and lack of implementation capacity. The pace of reform should be moderated to allow service providers to develop absorptive capacity. Independent, outcome-based monitoring and evaluation by a third-party are essential for mid-course correction of the plans and to make officials and providers accountable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              The Effect of Health on Economic Growth: A Production Function Approach

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                spm
                Salud Pública de México
                Salud pública Méx
                Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública (Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico )
                0036-3634
                April 2013
                : 55
                : 2
                : 207-235
                Affiliations
                [06] orgnameSecretaría de Salud de México México
                [01] Boston MA orgnameHarvard Global Equity Initiative EUA
                [11] orgnameinstituto Carlos Slim de la Salud México
                [12] Boston MA orgnameHarvard School of Public Health EUA
                [07] orgnameInstituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán México
                [09] Cambridge MA orgnameInstitute for Healthcare Improvement EUA
                [10] San Francisco CA orgnameUniversity of California EUA
                [03] orgnameInstituto Mexicano del Seguro Social México
                [05] orgnameComisión Nacional de Protección Social en Salud México
                [08] orgnameAcademia Nacional de Medicina México
                [02] orgnameFundación Mexicana para la Salud México
                [04] Cuernavaca orgnameInstituto Nacional de Salud Pública de México México
                Article
                S0036-36342013000200013 S0036-3634(13)05500213
                10.1590/s0036-36342013000200013
                f9faff89-7a29-4f4f-987d-61d19736b1b1

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 156, Pages: 29
                Product

                SciELO Mexico

                Self URI: Texto completo solamente en formato PDF (ES)
                Categories
                Artículo especial

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