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      Persistent Leatherback Turtle Migrations Present Opportunities for Conservation

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Effective transboundary conservation of highly migratory marine animals requires international management cooperation as well as clear scientific information about habitat use by these species. Populations of leatherback turtles ( Dermochelys coriacea) in the eastern Pacific have declined by >90% during the past two decades, primarily due to unsustainable egg harvest and fisheries bycatch mortality. While research and conservation efforts on nesting beaches are ongoing, relatively little is known about this population of leatherbacks' oceanic habitat use and migration pathways. We present the largest multi-year (2004–2005, 2005–2006, and 2007) satellite tracking dataset (12,095 cumulative satellite tracking days) collected for leatherback turtles. Forty-six females were electronically tagged during three field seasons at Playa Grande, Costa Rica, the largest extant nesting colony in the eastern Pacific. After completing nesting, the turtles headed southward, traversing the dynamic equatorial currents with rapid, directed movements. In contrast to the highly varied dispersal patterns seen in many other sea turtle populations, leatherbacks from Playa Grande traveled within a persistent migration corridor from Costa Rica, past the equator, and into the South Pacific Gyre, a vast, low-energy, low-productivity region. We describe the predictable effects of ocean currents on a leatherback migration corridor and characterize long-distance movements by the turtles in the eastern South Pacific. These data from high seas habitats will also elucidate potential areas for mitigating fisheries bycatch interactions. These findings directly inform existing multinational conservation frameworks and provide immediate regions in the migration corridor where conservation can be implemented. We identify high seas locations for focusing future conservation efforts within the leatherback dispersal zone in the South Pacific Gyre.

          Author Summary

          Highly migratory marine animals routinely cross international borders during extensive migrations over thousands of kilometers, thus requiring conservation strategies with information about habitat use and movement patterns. Critically endangered leatherback turtles ( Dermochelys coriacea) in the eastern Pacific have suffered a severe population decline in recent years. In this study, we present the largest multi-year satellite tracking data set for leatherback turtles ( n = 46 turtles, 12,095 days) to describe the migrations, habitats, and dispersal of female leatherbacks tagged at Playa Grande, Costa Rica. Leatherbacks followed a migration corridor southward from Costa Rica into the South Pacific Gyre in each year of our study. In the equatorial region, leatherbacks experienced strong ocean currents that influenced the direction of their movements; leatherbacks responded to current deflection with rapid, directed movements to maintain their southward heading. After passing through this equatorial current field, turtles dispersed broadly within a low-energy, low-productivity region of the South Pacific. Our analyses revealed that ocean currents shaped the migration corridor and influenced the scope of turtle dispersal in the South Pacific—results that provide a biological rationale for the development of multi-scale conservation strategies. These strategies could involve improved and enhanced monitoring of leatherback–fisheries interactions as well as dynamic time-area fisheries closures and protected area designations within the high seas of the South Pacific.

          Abstract

          Satellite tracking data from female leatherback turtles reveal their migration routes in the eastern Pacific and demonstrate how oceanic currents shape their migration corridors, providing a biological basis for conservation strategies.

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          Most cited references 49

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                PLoS Biol
                pbio
                plbi
                plosbiol
                PLoS Biology
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1544-9173
                1545-7885
                July 2008
                15 July 2008
                : 6
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, California, United States of America
                [2 ] Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America
                [3 ] NOAA/NMFS/SWFSC/Environmental Research Division, Pacific Grove, California, United States of America
                [4 ] Collecte Localisation Satellites, Direction Océanographie Spatiale, Ramonville, France
                [5 ] Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, Arlington, Virginia, United States of America
                [6 ] Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
                [7 ] Department of Biology, Indiana-Purdue University, Fort Wayne, Indiana, United States of America
                [8 ] Parque Nacional Marino Las Baulas, Ministerio de Ambiente y Energía, San José, Costa Rica
                [9 ] Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network, Duke University Marine Laboratory, Beaufort, North Carolina, United States of America
                Imperial College, United Kingdom
                Author notes
                * To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: bblock@ 123456stanford.edu
                Article
                08-PLBI-RA-0825R2 plbi-06-07-11
                10.1371/journal.pbio.0060171
                2459209
                18630987
                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Public Domain declaration which stipulates that, once placed in the public domain, this work may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose.
                Page count
                Pages: 9
                Categories
                Research Article
                Ecology
                Evolutionary Biology
                Science Policy
                Custom metadata
                Shillinger GL, Palacios DM, Bailey H, Bograd SJ, Swithenbank AM, et al. (2008) Persistent leatherback turtle migrations present opportunities for conservation. PLoS Biol 6(7): e171. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060171

                Life sciences

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