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      An endoplasmic reticulum stress-regulated lncRNA hosting a microRNA megacluster induces early features of diabetic nephropathy

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          Abstract

          It is important to find better treatments for diabetic nephropathy (DN), a debilitating renal complication. Targeting early features of DN, including renal extracellular matrix accumulation (ECM) and glomerular hypertrophy, can prevent disease progression. Here we show that a megacluster of nearly 40 microRNAs and their host long non-coding RNA transcript (lnc-MGC) are coordinately increased in the glomeruli of mouse models of DN, and mesangial cells treated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF- β1) or high glucose. Lnc-MGC is regulated by an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related transcription factor, CHOP. Cluster microRNAs and lnc-MGC are decreased in diabetic Chop −/− mice that showed protection from DN. Target genes of megacluster microRNAs have functions related to protein synthesis and ER stress. A chemically modified oligonucleotide targeting lnc-MGC inhibits cluster microRNAs, glomerular ECM and hypertrophy in diabetic mice. Relevance to human DN is also demonstrated. These results demonstrate the translational implications of targeting lnc-MGC for controlling DN progression.

          Abstract

          Nephropathy is a common and hard-to-treat consequence of diabetes. Here Kato et al. show that a megacluster of microRNAs regulates early development of diabetic nephropathy in mice, and that inhibition of the cluster's host long non-coding RNA transcript attenuates disease symptoms, suggesting a new therapy for diabetic nephropathy.

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          Most cited references 50

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          Tenets of PTEN tumor suppression.

          Since its discovery as the elusive tumor suppressor gene at the frequently mutated 10q23 locus, PTEN has been identified as lost or mutated in several sporadic and heritable tumor types. A decade of work has established that PTEN is a nonredundant phosphatase that is essential for regulating the highly oncogenic prosurvival PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. This review discusses emerging modes of PTEN function and regulation, and speculates about how manipulation of PTEN function could be used for cancer therapy.
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            MicroRNA-192 in diabetic kidney glomeruli and its function in TGF-beta-induced collagen expression via inhibition of E-box repressors.

            Key features of diabetic nephropathy (DN) include the accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen 1-alpha 1 and -2 (Col1a1 and -2). Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta), a key regulator of these extracellular matrix genes, is increased in mesangial cells (MC) in DN. By microarray profiling, we noted that TGF-beta increased Col1a2 mRNA in mouse MC (MMC) but also decreased mRNA levels of an E-box repressor, deltaEF1. TGF-beta treatment or short hairpin RNAs targeting deltaEF1 increased enhancer activity of upstream E-box elements in the Col1a2 gene. TGF-beta also decreased the expression of Smad-interacting protein 1 (SIP1), another E-box repressor similar to deltaEF1. Interestingly, we noted that SIP1 is a target of microRNA-192 (miR-192), a key miR highly expressed in the kidney. miR-192 levels also were increased by TGF-beta in MMC. TGF-beta treatment or transfection with miR-192 decreased endogenous SIP1 expression as well as reporter activity of a SIP1 3' UTR-containing luciferase construct in MMC. Conversely, a miR-192 inhibitor enhanced the luciferase activity, confirming SIP1 to be a miR-192 target. Furthermore, miR-192 synergized with deltaEF1 short hairpin RNAs to increase Col1a2 E-box-luc activity. Importantly, the in vivo relevance was noted by the observation that miR-192 levels were enhanced significantly in glomeruli isolated from streptozotocin-injected diabetic mice as well as diabetic db/db mice relative to corresponding nondiabetic controls, in parallel with increased TGF-beta and Col1a2 levels. These results uncover a role for miRs in the kidney and DN in controlling TGF-beta-induced Col1a2 expression by down-regulating E-box repressors.
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              A glimpse of various pathogenetic mechanisms of diabetic nephropathy.

              Diabetic nephropathy is a well-known complication of diabetes and is a leading cause of chronic renal failure in the Western world. It is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix in the glomerular and tubulointerstitial compartments and by the thickening and hyalinization of intrarenal vasculature. The various cellular events and signaling pathways activated during diabetic nephropathy may be similar in different cell types. Such cellular events include excessive channeling of glucose intermediaries into various metabolic pathways with generation of advanced glycation products, activation of protein kinase C, increased expression of transforming growth factor β and GTP-binding proteins, and generation of reactive oxygen species. In addition to these metabolic and biochemical derangements, changes in the intraglomerular hemodynamics, modulated in part by local activation of the renin-angiotensin system, compound the hyperglycemia-induced injury. Events involving various intersecting pathways occur in most cell types of the kidney.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nat Commun
                Nat Commun
                Nature Communications
                Nature Publishing Group
                2041-1723
                30 September 2016
                2016
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Diabetes Complications and Metabolism, Diabetes Metabolism Research Institute, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope , Duarte, California 91010, USA
                [2 ]Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan , Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
                [3 ]Department of Pathology, University of Michigan , Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
                [4 ]Diabetes Epidemiology and Clinical Research Section, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health , Phoenix, Arizona 85014, USA
                Author notes
                Article
                ncomms12864
                10.1038/ncomms12864
                5553130
                27686049
                Copyright © 2016, The Author(s)

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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