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      The Effects of a Simulated Workday of Prolonged Sitting on Seated versus Supine Blood Pressure and Pulse Wave Velocity in Adults with Overweight/Obesity and Elevated Blood Pressure


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          We evaluated the effects of a simulated workday of prolonged sitting on blood pressure (BP) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) and examined whether posture (seated vs. supine) affected responses. Participants ( n = 25) were adults, with overweight/obesity and elevated BP, and performed seated desk work for 7.5 h. BP and PWV were measured in seated and supine postures at baseline (7:15 a.m.), midday (12:05 p.m.), and afternoon (4:45 p.m.). Generalized linear mixed models evaluated the effects of prolonged sitting on BP and PWV within each posture and interactions by posture and sex. In the recommended postures, seated BP and supine carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and carotid-ankle pulse wave velocity (caPWV), but not carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (crPWV), significantly increased over the simulated seated workday (all p < 0.05; effect sizes [ d] ranged from 0.25 to 0.44). Whilst no posture-by-time interactions were observed ( p > 0.05), BP, caPWV, and crPWV were higher when seated versus supine (main effects of posture p < 0.05; d ranged from 0.30 to 1.04). Exploratory analysis revealed that females had greater seated BP responses ( p for interaction <0.05); seated PWV and supine BP and PWV responses were similar by sex ( p for interaction >0.05). A simulated workday of prolonged sitting increased seated BP and supine cfPWV and caPWV, and posture minimally influenced these responses. These results add to the evidence suggesting a deleterious effect of prolonged sitting on cardiovascular health.

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          The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans

          Approximately 80% of US adults and adolescents are insufficiently active. Physical activity fosters normal growth and development and can make people feel, function, and sleep better and reduce risk of many chronic diseases.
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            Is Open Access

            An Overview of Heart Rate Variability Metrics and Norms

            Healthy biological systems exhibit complex patterns of variability that can be described by mathematical chaos. Heart rate variability (HRV) consists of changes in the time intervals between consecutive heartbeats called interbeat intervals (IBIs). A healthy heart is not a metronome. The oscillations of a healthy heart are complex and constantly changing, which allow the cardiovascular system to rapidly adjust to sudden physical and psychological challenges to homeostasis. This article briefly reviews current perspectives on the mechanisms that generate 24 h, short-term (~5 min), and ultra-short-term (<5 min) HRV, the importance of HRV, and its implications for health and performance. The authors provide an overview of widely-used HRV time-domain, frequency-domain, and non-linear metrics. Time-domain indices quantify the amount of HRV observed during monitoring periods that may range from ~2 min to 24 h. Frequency-domain values calculate the absolute or relative amount of signal energy within component bands. Non-linear measurements quantify the unpredictability and complexity of a series of IBIs. The authors survey published normative values for clinical, healthy, and optimal performance populations. They stress the importance of measurement context, including recording period length, subject age, and sex, on baseline HRV values. They caution that 24 h, short-term, and ultra-short-term normative values are not interchangeable. They encourage professionals to supplement published norms with findings from their own specialized populations. Finally, the authors provide an overview of HRV assessment strategies for clinical and optimal performance interventions.
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              Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure.

              The National High Blood Pressure Education Program presents the complete Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Like its predecessors, the purpose is to provide an evidence-based approach to the prevention and management of hypertension. The key messages of this report are these: in those older than age 50, systolic blood pressure (BP) of greater than 140 mm Hg is a more important cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor than diastolic BP; beginning at 115/75 mm Hg, CVD risk doubles for each increment of 20/10 mm Hg; those who are normotensive at 55 years of age will have a 90% lifetime risk of developing hypertension; prehypertensive individuals (systolic BP 120-139 mm Hg or diastolic BP 80-89 mm Hg) require health-promoting lifestyle modifications to prevent the progressive rise in blood pressure and CVD; for uncomplicated hypertension, thiazide diuretic should be used in drug treatment for most, either alone or combined with drugs from other classes; this report delineates specific high-risk conditions that are compelling indications for the use of other antihypertensive drug classes (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers); two or more antihypertensive medications will be required to achieve goal BP (<140/90 mm Hg, or <130/80 mm Hg) for patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease; for patients whose BP is more than 20 mm Hg above the systolic BP goal or more than 10 mm Hg above the diastolic BP goal, initiation of therapy using two agents, one of which usually will be a thiazide diuretic, should be considered; regardless of therapy or care, hypertension will be controlled only if patients are motivated to stay on their treatment plan. Positive experiences, trust in the clinician, and empathy improve patient motivation and satisfaction. This report serves as a guide, and the committee continues to recognize that the responsible physician's judgment remains paramount.

                Author and article information

                J Vasc Res
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                November 2020
                16 September 2020
                : 57
                : 6
                : 355-366
                [_a] aDepartment of Health and Physical Activity, College of Education, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
                [_b] bDepartment of Exercise Physiology, College of Sport Sciences and Physical Activity, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                [_c] cDepartment of Health and Kinesiology, College of Education and Human Performance, Texas A&M University-Kingsville, Kingsville, Texas, USA
                [_d] dDepartment of Sport and Exercise, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
                Author notes
                *Abdullah Bandar Alansare, Department of Health and Physical Activity, University of Pittsburgh, 32 Oak Hill Court, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (USA), aba79@pitt.edu
                510294 J Vasc Res 2020;57:355–366
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, Pages: 12
                Methods in Vascular Biology

                General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
                Posture,Prolonged sitting,Heart rate,Pulse wave velocity,Desk work,Blood pressure


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