Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by cells that exhibit dysfunctional apoptosis. Here, we show that deacetylase inhibition led to the E2F1- and myc-mediated transcriptional activation of the microRNA miR106b in primary CLL cells. Induction of miR106b was associated with a down-regulation in the levels of the E3-ubiquitin ligase Itch. Decreases in Itch protein levels were associated with a reciprocal accumulation of its proapoptotic substrate, TAp73 (p73), and induction of p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) mRNA and protein. This event was accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction, processing of caspase-9, and apoptosis of CLL cells. Ectopic expression of miR106b in CLL cells demonstrated that Itch was a direct target of miR106b such that miR106b-induced decreases in Itch resulted in an accumulation of p73. Thus, our results identify a novel regulatory mechanism wherein microRNA regulate cell survival by mediating the posttranscriptional down-regulation of an ubiquitin ligase, leading to the induction of a proapoptotic regulator in malignant cells. Silencing of miRNA expression in CLL may selectively suppress proapoptotic pathways, providing such tumors with a survival advantage. Consequently, chemotherapeutic drugs that activate miR106b could initiate a p53-independent mechanism that targets CLL cells.