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      Exercise Training in Patients Receiving Maintenance Hemodialysis: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials

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          Background: Exercise is not routinely advocated in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving maintenance hemodialysis (HD), compared to best practice in other chronically diseased cohorts. Lack of widespread awareness of the exercise in HD literature may be contributing to these shortcomings of clinical practice. Therefore, our objectives are: (1) to systematically review trials of exercise training involving adult HD patients; (2) to provide empirical evidence that exercise can elicit health-related adaptations in this cohort, and (3) to provide recommendations for future investigations. Method: A systematic review of the literature using computerized databases was performed. Results: According to the 29 trials reviewed, HD patients can safely derive a myriad of health-related adaptations from engaging in appropriately structured exercise regimens involving aerobic and/or resistance training. However, methodological limitations within this body of literature may be partially responsible for minimal advocacy for exercise in this cohort. Conclusions: Robustly designed RCTs with thorough, standardized reporting are required if clinical practice and quality of life of this cohort is to be enhanced through the integration of exercise training and mainstream medical practice. Future trials should demonstrate the clinical importance, and long-term feasibility and applicability of exercise training for this vulnerable patient population.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Measuring the quality of life of cancer patients

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            Physical functioning and health-related quality-of-life changes with exercise training in hemodialysis patients.

            The Renal Exercise Demonstration Project was designed to test the effects of two different approaches to exercise programming on the levels of physical activity, physical functioning, and self-reported health status in hemodialysis patients. Two hundred eighty-six patients were recruited for participation. Intervention patients were given individually prescribed exercise for 8 weeks of independent home exercise, followed by 8 weeks of incenter cycling during dialysis. Physical performance testing was performed at baseline and after each intervention using gait speed, sit-to-stand test, and 6-minute walk. The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-item (SF-36) questionnaire was used to assess self-reported health status. The intervention group showed increased participation in physical activity. There were significant differences between the intervention and nonintervention groups in change over time in normal and fast gait speed, sit-to-stand test scores, and the physical scales on the SF-36, including the physical component scale. The intervention group improved in these test results, whereas the nonintervention group either did not change or declined over the duration of the study. It is clear that improvements in physical functioning result from exercise counseling and encouragement in hemodialysis patients. Because self-reported physical functioning is highly predictive of outcomes in hemodialysis patients, more attention to patients' levels of physical activity is warranted.
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              The effects of exercise training on muscle atrophy in haemodialysis patients.

              Patients with end-stage renal disease on haemodialysis (HD) have limited work capacity. Many structural and functional alterations in skeletal muscles contribute to this disability. To evaluate the effects of exercise training on uraemic myopathy, seven HD patients (mean age 44.1+/-17.2 years) were studied. Open muscle biopsies were taken from their vastus lateralis muscle before and after a 6-month exercise rehabilitation programme and examined by routine light- and transmission electron-microscopy. Histochemical stainings of frozen sections were performed and morphometric analysis was also applied to estimate the proportion of each fibre type and the muscle fibre area. Spiroergometric and neurophysiological testing and peak extension forces of the lower limbs were measured before and after exercise training. All patients showed impaired exercise capacity, which was associated with marked muscular atrophy (mean area 2548+/-463 microm2) and reduction in muscle strength and nerve conduction velocity. All types of fibres were atrophied, but type II were more affected. The ultrastructural study showed severe degenerative changes in skeletal muscle fibres, mitochondria, and capillaries. Exercise training had an impressive effect on muscular atrophy; in particular the proportion of type II fibres increased by 51% and mean muscle fibre area by 29%. Favourable changes were also seen on the structure and number of capillaries and mitochondria. These results were confirmed by a 48% increase in VO2 peak and a 29% in exercise time, as well as an improvement in the peak muscle strength of the lower limbs and in nerve conduction velocity. Skeletal muscle atrophy in HD patients contribute to their poor exercise tolerance. The application of an exercise training rehabilitation programme improved muscle atrophy markedly, and therefore had beneficial effects in overall work performance.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                August 2005
                18 August 2005
                : 25
                : 4
                : 352-364
                aSchool of Exercise and Sport Science, and bFaculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; cHebrew Rehabilitation Center for the Aged and Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, Mass., USA
                87184 Am J Nephrol 2005;25:352–364
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Tables: 3, References: 48, Pages: 13
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/87184
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