0
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
2 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Withanone from Withania somnifera Attenuates SARS-CoV-2 RBD and Host ACE2 Interactions to Rescue Spike Protein Induced Pathologies in Humanized Zebrafish Model

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Purpose

          SARS-CoV-2 engages human ACE2 through its spike (S) protein receptor binding domain (RBD) to enter the host cell. Recent computational studies have reported that withanone and withaferin A, phytochemicals found in Withania somnifera, target viral main protease (M Pro) and host transmembrane TMPRSS2, and glucose related protein 78 (GRP78), respectively, implicating their potential as viral entry inhibitors. Absence of specific treatment against SARS-CoV-2 infection has encouraged exploration of phytochemicals as potential antivirals.

          Aim

          This study aimed at in silico exploration, along with in vitro and in vivo validation of antiviral efficacy of the phytochemical withanone.

          Methods

          Through molecular docking, molecular dynamic (MD) simulation and electrostatic energy calculation the plausible biochemical interactions between withanone and the ACE2-RBD complex were investigated. These in silico observations were biochemically validated by ELISA-based assays. Withanone-enriched extract from W. somnifera was tested for its ability to ameliorate clinically relevant pathological features, modelled in humanized zebrafish through SARS-CoV-2 recombinant spike (S) protein induction.

          Results

          Withanone bound efficiently at the interacting interface of the ACE2-RBD complex and destabilized it energetically. The electrostatic component of binding free energies of the complex was significantly decreased. The two intrachain salt bridge interactions (K31-E35) and the interchain long-range ion-pair (K31-E484), at the ACE2-RBD interface were completely abolished by withanone, in the 50 ns simulation. In vitro binding assay experimentally validated that withanone efficiently inhibited (IC 50=0.33 ng/mL) the interaction between ACE2 and RBD, in a dose-dependent manner. A withanone-enriched extract, without any co-extracted withaferin A, was prepared from W. somnifera leaves. This enriched extract was found to be efficient in ameliorating human-like pathological responses induced in humanized zebrafish by SARS-CoV-2 recombinant spike (S) protein.

          Conclusion

          In conclusion, this study provided experimental validation for computational insight into the potential of withanone as a potent inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus entry into the host cells.

          Video abstract

          Point your SmartPhone at the code above. If you have a QR code reader the video abstract will appear. Or use:

          https://youtu.be/6dSVJvU4sGE

          Related collections

          Most cited references 64

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          UCSF Chimera--a visualization system for exploratory research and analysis.

          The design, implementation, and capabilities of an extensible visualization system, UCSF Chimera, are discussed. Chimera is segmented into a core that provides basic services and visualization, and extensions that provide most higher level functionality. This architecture ensures that the extension mechanism satisfies the demands of outside developers who wish to incorporate new features. Two unusual extensions are presented: Multiscale, which adds the ability to visualize large-scale molecular assemblies such as viral coats, and Collaboratory, which allows researchers to share a Chimera session interactively despite being at separate locales. Other extensions include Multalign Viewer, for showing multiple sequence alignments and associated structures; ViewDock, for screening docked ligand orientations; Movie, for replaying molecular dynamics trajectories; and Volume Viewer, for display and analysis of volumetric data. A discussion of the usage of Chimera in real-world situations is given, along with anticipated future directions. Chimera includes full user documentation, is free to academic and nonprofit users, and is available for Microsoft Windows, Linux, Apple Mac OS X, SGI IRIX, and HP Tru64 Unix from http://www.cgl.ucsf.edu/chimera/. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: found
            Is Open Access

            The species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus : classifying 2019-nCoV and naming it SARS-CoV-2

            The present outbreak of a coronavirus-associated acute respiratory disease called coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is the third documented spillover of an animal coronavirus to humans in only two decades that has resulted in a major epidemic. The Coronaviridae Study Group (CSG) of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, which is responsible for developing the classification of viruses and taxon nomenclature of the family Coronaviridae, has assessed the placement of the human pathogen, tentatively named 2019-nCoV, within the Coronaviridae. Based on phylogeny, taxonomy and established practice, the CSG recognizes this virus as forming a sister clade to the prototype human and bat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoVs) of the species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, and designates it as SARS-CoV-2. In order to facilitate communication, the CSG proposes to use the following naming convention for individual isolates: SARS-CoV-2/host/location/isolate/date. While the full spectrum of clinical manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 infections in humans remains to be determined, the independent zoonotic transmission of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 highlights the need for studying viruses at the species level to complement research focused on individual pathogenic viruses of immediate significance. This will improve our understanding of virus–host interactions in an ever-changing environment and enhance our preparedness for future outbreaks.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Structure validation by Calpha geometry: phi,psi and Cbeta deviation.

              Geometrical validation around the Calpha is described, with a new Cbeta measure and updated Ramachandran plot. Deviation of the observed Cbeta atom from ideal position provides a single measure encapsulating the major structure-validation information contained in bond angle distortions. Cbeta deviation is sensitive to incompatibilities between sidechain and backbone caused by misfit conformations or inappropriate refinement restraints. A new phi,psi plot using density-dependent smoothing for 81,234 non-Gly, non-Pro, and non-prePro residues with B < 30 from 500 high-resolution proteins shows sharp boundaries at critical edges and clear delineation between large empty areas and regions that are allowed but disfavored. One such region is the gamma-turn conformation near +75 degrees,-60 degrees, counted as forbidden by common structure-validation programs; however, it occurs in well-ordered parts of good structures, it is overrepresented near functional sites, and strain is partly compensated by the gamma-turn H-bond. Favored and allowed phi,psi regions are also defined for Pro, pre-Pro, and Gly (important because Gly phi,psi angles are more permissive but less accurately determined). Details of these accurate empirical distributions are poorly predicted by previous theoretical calculations, including a region left of alpha-helix, which rates as favorable in energy yet rarely occurs. A proposed factor explaining this discrepancy is that crowding of the two-peptide NHs permits donating only a single H-bond. New calculations by Hu et al. [Proteins 2002 (this issue)] for Ala and Gly dipeptides, using mixed quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics, fit our nonrepetitive data in excellent detail. To run our geometrical evaluations on a user-uploaded file, see MOLPROBITY (http://kinemage.biochem.duke.edu) or RAMPAGE (http://www-cryst.bioc.cam.ac.uk/rampage). Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                dddt
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                11 March 2021
                2021
                : 15
                : 1111-1133
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Drug Discovery and Development Division, Patanjali Research Institute , Haridwar, 249405, Uttarakhand, India
                [2 ]Department of Allied and Applied Sciences, University of Patanjali , Haridwar, 249405, Uttarakhand, India
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Anurag Varshney; Swati Haldar Drug Discovery and Development Division, Patanjali Research Institute , Roorkee-Haridwar Road, Haridwar, 249405, Uttarakhand, IndiaTel +91-1334-244107, Ext. 7458; +91-1334-244107, Ext. 7481Fax +91-1334-244805 Email anurag@prft.co.in; swati.haldar@prft.in
                Article
                292805
                10.2147/DDDT.S292805
                7961299
                © 2021 Balkrishna et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 10, Tables: 11, References: 64, Pages: 23
                Funding
                Funded by: no external funding;
                Funded by: Patanjali Research Foundation Trust;
                This research received no external funding. This presented work has been conducted using internal research funds from the Patanjali Research Foundation Trust, Hardwar, India.
                Categories
                Original Research

                Comments

                Comment on this article

                Similar content 72

                Cited by 3

                Most referenced authors 2,383