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      Metabolism Characteristics of Lactic Acid Bacteria and the Expanding Applications in Food Industry


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          Lactic acid bacteria are a kind of microorganisms that can ferment carbohydrates to produce lactic acid, and are currently widely used in the fermented food industry. In recent years, with the excellent role of lactic acid bacteria in the food industry and probiotic functions, their microbial metabolic characteristics have also attracted more attention. Lactic acid bacteria can decompose macromolecular substances in food, including degradation of indigestible polysaccharides and transformation of undesirable flavor substances. Meanwhile, they can also produce a variety of products including short-chain fatty acids, amines, bacteriocins, vitamins and exopolysaccharides during metabolism. Based on the above-mentioned metabolic characteristics, lactic acid bacteria have shown a variety of expanded applications in the food industry. On the one hand, they are used to improve the flavor of fermented foods, increase the nutrition of foods, reduce harmful substances, increase shelf life, and so on. On the other hand, they can be used as probiotics to promote health in the body. This article reviews and prospects the important metabolites in the expanded application of lactic acid bacteria from the perspective of bioengineering and biotechnology.

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          Most cited references181

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          A taxonomic note on the genus Lactobacillus: Description of 23 novel genera, emended description of the genus Lactobacillus Beijerinck 1901, and union of Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae

          The genus Lactobacillus comprises 261 species (at March 2020) that are extremely diverse at phenotypic, ecological and genotypic levels. This study evaluated the taxonomy of Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae on the basis of whole genome sequences. Parameters that were evaluated included core genome phylogeny, (conserved) pairwise average amino acid identity, clade-specific signature genes, physiological criteria and the ecology of the organisms. Based on this polyphasic approach, we propose reclassification of the genus Lactobacillus into 25 genera including the emended genus Lactobacillus, which includes host-adapted organisms that have been referred to as the Lactobacillus delbrueckii group, Paralactobacillus and 23 novel genera for which the names Holzapfelia, Amylolactobacillus, Bombilactobacillus, Companilactobacillus, Lapidilactobacillus, Agrilactobacillus, Schleiferilactobacillus, Loigolactobacilus, Lacticaseibacillus, Latilactobacillus, Dellaglioa, Liquorilactobacillus, Ligilactobacillus, Lactiplantibacillus, Furfurilactobacillus, Paucilactobacillus, Limosilactobacillus, Fructilactobacillus, Acetilactobacillus, Apilactobacillus, Levilactobacillus, Secundilactobacillus and Lentilactobacillus are proposed. We also propose to emend the description of the family Lactobacillaceae to include all genera that were previously included in families Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae. The generic term 'lactobacilli' will remain useful to designate all organisms that were classified as Lactobacillaceae until 2020. This reclassification reflects the phylogenetic position of the micro-organisms, and groups lactobacilli into robust clades with shared ecological and metabolic properties, as exemplified for the emended genus Lactobacillus encompassing species adapted to vertebrates (such as Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus iners, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensensii, Lactobacillus johnsonii and Lactobacillus acidophilus) or invertebrates (such as Lactobacillus apis and Lactobacillus bombicola).
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            Bacteriocins: developing innate immunity for food.

            Bacteriocins are bacterially produced antimicrobial peptides with narrow or broad host ranges. Many bacteriocins are produced by food-grade lactic acid bacteria, a phenomenon which offers food scientists the possibility of directing or preventing the development of specific bacterial species in food. This can be particularly useful in preservation or food safety applications, but also has implications for the development of desirable flora in fermented food. In this sense, bacteriocins can be used to confer a rudimentary form of innate immunity to foodstuffs, helping processors extend their control over the food flora long after manufacture.
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              The return of metabolism: biochemistry and physiology of the pentose phosphate pathway

              The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is a fundamental component of cellular metabolism. The PPP is important to maintain carbon homoeostasis, to provide precursors for nucleotide and amino acid biosynthesis, to provide reducing molecules for anabolism, and to defeat oxidative stress. The PPP shares reactions with the Entner–Doudoroff pathway and Calvin cycle and divides into an oxidative and non-oxidative branch. The oxidative branch is highly active in most eukaryotes and converts glucose 6-phosphate into carbon dioxide, ribulose 5-phosphate and NADPH. The latter function is critical to maintain redox balance under stress situations, when cells proliferate rapidly, in ageing, and for the ‘Warburg effect’ of cancer cells. The non-oxidative branch instead is virtually ubiquitous, and metabolizes the glycolytic intermediates fructose 6-phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate as well as sedoheptulose sugars, yielding ribose 5-phosphate for the synthesis of nucleic acids and sugar phosphate precursors for the synthesis of amino acids. Whereas the oxidative PPP is considered unidirectional, the non-oxidative branch can supply glycolysis with intermediates derived from ribose 5-phosphate and vice versa, depending on the biochemical demand. These functions require dynamic regulation of the PPP pathway that is achieved through hierarchical interactions between transcriptome, proteome and metabolome. Consequently, the biochemistry and regulation of this pathway, while still unresolved in many cases, are archetypal for the dynamics of the metabolic network of the cell. In this comprehensive article we review seminal work that led to the discovery and description of the pathway that date back now for 80 years, and address recent results about genetic and metabolic mechanisms that regulate its activity. These biochemical principles are discussed in the context of PPP deficiencies causing metabolic disease and the role of this pathway in biotechnology, bacterial and parasite infections, neurons, stem cell potency and cancer metabolism.

                Author and article information

                Front Bioeng Biotechnol
                Front Bioeng Biotechnol
                Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol.
                Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                12 May 2021
                : 9
                [1] 1State Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, College of Food Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Science and Technology , Tianjin, China
                [2] 2State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology , Shanghai, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Mingfeng Cao, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States

                Reviewed by: Sastia Prama Putri, Osaka University, Japan; Michael Gänzle, University of Alberta, Canada; Shaohua Wang, Wake Forest School of Medicine, United States; Zhongtian Zhang, North Carolina State University, United States, in collaboration with reviewer SW

                *Correspondence: Yanping Wang, ypwang40@ 123456163.com

                This article was submitted to Synthetic Biology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology

                Copyright © 2021 Wang, Wu, Lv, Shao, Hungwe, Wang, Bai, Xie, Wang and Geng.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 181, Pages: 19, Words: 0
                Bioengineering and Biotechnology

                lactic acid bacteria,degradation,products,metabolism characteristics,expanding applications


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