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      Supreme™ laryngeal mask airway use in general Anesthesia for category 2 and 3 Cesarean delivery: a prospective cohort study

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          Abstract

          Background

          The Supreme™ laryngeal mask airway (SLMA) is a single-use LMA with double lumen design that allows separation of the respiratory and the alimentary tract, hence potentially reducing the gastric volume and risk of aspiration. The purpose of this prospective cohort study is to evaluate the the role of the SLMA as an airway technique for women undergoing category 2 and 3 Cesarean delivery under general anesthesia.

          Methods

          We recruited 584 parturients who underwent category 2 or 3 Cesarean delivery under general anesthesia, in which 193 parturients underwent category 2 and 391 parturients underwent category 3 Cesarean delivery. The primary outcome was insertion success rate at 1st attempt in SLMA insertion. The secondary outcomes included anaesthetic, obstetric outcomes and maternal side effects associated with airway device.

          Results

          The 1st attempt insertion success rate was 98.3%, while the overall insertion success rate was 100%. The mean (Standard deviation) time to effective ventilation was 15.6 (4.4) seconds. Orogastric tube insertion was successful at the 1st attempt in all parturients. There was no clinical evidence of aspiration or regurgitation. No episodes of hypoxemia, laryngospasm or bronchospasm were observed intra-operatively. The incidence of complications was low and with good maternal satisfaction reported.

          Conclusions

          The SLMA could be an alternative effective airway in category 2 and 3 parturients emergency Cesarean Delivery under general anesthesia in a carefully-selected obstetric population.

          Trial registration

          Clinical Trials Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov Registration NCT02026882. Registered on December 31, 2013.

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          Most cited references 28

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          The aspiration of stomach contents into the lungs during obstetric anesthesia.

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            Urgency of caesarean section: a new classification.

            A new classification for caesarean section was developed in a two-part study conducted at six hospitals. Initially, 90 anaesthetists and obstetricians graded ten clinical scenarios according to five different classification methods--visual analogue scale; suitable anaesthetic technique; maximum time to delivery; clinical definitions; and a 1-5 rating scale. Clinical definitions was the most consistent and useful, and this method was then applied prospectively to 407 caesarean sections at the same six hospitals. There was close agreement (86%) between anaesthetists and obstetricians for the five-point scale (weighted kappa 0.89), increasing to 90% if two categories were combined (weighted kappa 0.91). We suggest that the resultant four-grade classification system--(i) immediate threat to life of woman or fetus; (ii) maternal or fetal compromise which is not immediately life-threatening; (iii) needing early delivery but no maternal or fetal compromise; (iv) at a time to suit the patient and maternity team--should be adopted by multidisciplinary groups with an interest in maternity data collection.
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              The ProSeal laryngeal mask airway: a review of the literature.

              To analyze and summarize the published literature relating to the ProSeal LMA (PLMA): a modification of the "classic LMA" (cLMA) with an esophageal drain tube (DT), designed to improve controlled ventilation, airway protection and diagnosis of misplacement. Articles identified through Medline and EMBASE searches using keywords "Proseal", "ProSeal" and "PLMA". Hand searches of these articles and major anesthetic journals from January 1998 to March 2005. Searches identified 59 randomized controlled trials or clinical studies and 79 other publications. Compared to the cLMA, PLMA insertion takes a few seconds longer. First attempt insertion success for the PLMA is lower, but overall success is equivalent. Airway seal is improved by 50%. The DT enables early diagnosis of mask misplacement, allows gastric drainage, reduces gastric inflation and may vent regurgitated stomach contents. Evidence suggests, but does not prove, that the correctly placed PLMA reduces aspiration risk compared with the cLMA. PLMA use is associated with less coughing and less hemodynamic disturbance than use of a tracheal tube (TT). Comparative trials of the PLMA with other supraglottic airways favour the PLMA. Clinicians have extended the use of the PLMA inside and outside the operating theatre including use for difficult airway management and airway rescue. The PLMA has similar insertion characteristics and complications to other laryngeal masks. The DT enables rapid diagnosis of misplacement. The PLMA offers significant benefits over both the cLMA and TT in some clinical circumstances. These and clinical experience with the PLMA are discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                fen7679@sina.com
                ywyzxy@sina.com
                yyjywy@sina.com
                terence.tay@mohh.com.sg
                Han.Nianlin@kkh.com.sg
                rehena.sultana@duke-nus.edu.sg
                pryseley.an@hotmail.com
                alex.sia.t.h@singhealth.com.sg
                +65 63941077 , sng.ban.leong@singhealth.com.sg
                Journal
                BMC Anesthesiol
                BMC Anesthesiol
                BMC Anesthesiology
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2253
                19 December 2017
                19 December 2017
                2017
                : 17
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Quanzhou Macare Women’s Hospital, Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Quanzhou, 362000 China
                [2 ]GRID grid.459333.b, Department of Anesthesiology, , Qinghai University Affiliated Hospital, ; Xining, Qinghai China
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8958 3388, GRID grid.414963.d, Department of Women’s Anaesthesia, , KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, ; 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore, 229899 Singapore
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8958 3388, GRID grid.414963.d, Division of Clinical Support Services, , KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, ; 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore, Singapore
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0385 0924, GRID grid.428397.3, Centre for Quantitative Medicine, , Duke-NUS Medical School, ; Singapore, Singapore
                [6 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0451 6530, GRID grid.452814.e, Singapore Clinical Research Institute, ; Singapore, Singapore
                [7 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0385 0924, GRID grid.428397.3, Duke-NUS Medical School, ; 8 College Road, Singapore, 169857 Singapore
                Article
                460
                10.1186/s12871-017-0460-x
                5735892
                © The Author(s). 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                Research Article
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                © The Author(s) 2017

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