Childhood asthma is responsible for significant morbidity and health care expenditures in the United States. The incidence of asthma is greatest in early childhood, and the prevalence is projected to continue rising in the absence of prevention and intervention measures. The prevention of asthma will likely require a multifaceted intervention strategy; however, few randomized controlled trials have assessed such approaches. The purpose of this review was to use previous meta-analyses to identify the most impactful risk factors for asthma development and evaluate the effect of risk factor reduction on future childhood asthma prevalence. Common and modifiable risk factors with large effects included acute viral respiratory infections, antibiotic use, birth by cesarean section, nutritional disorders (overweight, obesity), second hand smoke exposure, allergen sensitization, breastfeeding, and sufficient prenatal vitamin D level. Evaluation and estimates of risk factor modification on populations at risk should guide scientists and policymakers toward high impact areas that are apt for additional study and intervention.