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      The impact of modifiable risk factor reduction on childhood asthma development

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          Abstract

          Childhood asthma is responsible for significant morbidity and health care expenditures in the United States. The incidence of asthma is greatest in early childhood, and the prevalence is projected to continue rising in the absence of prevention and intervention measures. The prevention of asthma will likely require a multifaceted intervention strategy; however, few randomized controlled trials have assessed such approaches. The purpose of this review was to use previous meta-analyses to identify the most impactful risk factors for asthma development and evaluate the effect of risk factor reduction on future childhood asthma prevalence. Common and modifiable risk factors with large effects included acute viral respiratory infections, antibiotic use, birth by cesarean section, nutritional disorders (overweight, obesity), second hand smoke exposure, allergen sensitization, breastfeeding, and sufficient prenatal vitamin D level. Evaluation and estimates of risk factor modification on populations at risk should guide scientists and policymakers toward high impact areas that are apt for additional study and intervention.

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          The online version of this article (10.1186/s40169-018-0195-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 82

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          Breastfeeding and the use of human milk.

          Considerable advances have occurred in recent years in the scientific knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding, the mechanisms underlying these benefits, and in the clinical management of breastfeeding. This policy statement on breastfeeding replaces the 1997 policy statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics and reflects this newer knowledge and the supporting publications. The benefits of breastfeeding for the infant, the mother, and the community are summarized, and recommendations to guide the pediatrician and other health care professionals in assisting mothers in the initiation and maintenance of breastfeeding for healthy term infants and high-risk infants are presented. The policy statement delineates various ways in which pediatricians can promote, protect, and support breastfeeding not only in their individual practices but also in the hospital, medical school, community, and nation.
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            Exposure to environmental microorganisms and childhood asthma.

            Children who grow up in environments that afford them a wide range of microbial exposures, such as traditional farms, are protected from childhood asthma and atopy. In previous studies, markers of microbial exposure have been inversely related to these conditions. In two cross-sectional studies, we compared children living on farms with those in a reference group with respect to the prevalence of asthma and atopy and to the diversity of microbial exposure. In one study--PARSIFAL (Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in Children Related to Farming and Anthroposophic Lifestyle)--samples of mattress dust were screened for bacterial DNA with the use of single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analyses to detect environmental bacteria that cannot be measured by means of culture techniques. In the other study--GABRIELA (Multidisciplinary Study to Identify the Genetic and Environmental Causes of Asthma in the European Community [GABRIEL] Advanced Study)--samples of settled dust from children's rooms were evaluated for bacterial and fungal taxa with the use of culture techniques. In both studies, children who lived on farms had lower prevalences of asthma and atopy and were exposed to a greater variety of environmental microorganisms than the children in the reference group. In turn, diversity of microbial exposure was inversely related to the risk of asthma (odds ratio for PARSIFAL, 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44 to 0.89; odds ratio for GABRIELA, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.99). In addition, the presence of certain more circumscribed exposures was also inversely related to the risk of asthma; this included exposure to species in the fungal taxon eurotium (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.76) and to a variety of bacterial species, including Listeria monocytogenes, bacillus species, corynebacterium species, and others (adjusted odds ratio, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.86). Children living on farms were exposed to a wider range of microbes than were children in the reference group, and this exposure explains a substantial fraction of the inverse relation between asthma and growing up on a farm. (Funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the European Commission.).
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              Use and misuse of population attributable fractions.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                andrew.abreo@vanderbilt.edu
                tebeb.gebretsadik@Vanderbilt.edu
                cosby.a.stone@vanderbilt.edu
                tina.hartert@vanderbilt.edu
                Journal
                Clin Transl Med
                Clin Transl Med
                Clinical and Translational Medicine
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                2001-1326
                11 June 2018
                11 June 2018
                2018
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9916, GRID grid.412807.8, Department of Medicine, Center for Asthma Research, , Vanderbilt University Medical Center, ; Nashville, TN USA
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9916, GRID grid.412807.8, Department of Biostatistics, Center for Asthma Research, , Vanderbilt University Medical Center, ; Nashville, TN USA
                Article
                195
                10.1186/s40169-018-0195-4
                5995769
                29892940
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000060, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;
                Award ID: NIH K24 AI 077930
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Medicine

                asthma, risk factors, pediatrics

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