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      Melatonin Alleviates the Toxicity of High Nicotinamide Concentrations in Oocytes: Potential Interaction with Nicotinamide Methylation Signaling

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          Despite the numerous studies on melatonin and nicotinamide (NAM, the active form of vitamin B3), the linkage between these two biomolecules in the context of signaling pathways regulating preimplantation embryo development has not yet been investigated. In this study, we used bovine oocyte model to elucidate the effect of melatonin on the developmental competence of oocytes under the stress of high NAM concentrations. Results showed that NAM (20 mM) administration during in vitro maturation (IVM) significantly reduced oocyte maturation and actin distribution, while induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction, the multiple deleterious effects that were alleviated by melatonin (10 −7 M). The RT-qPCR and/or immunofluorescence showed upregulation of the apoptosis (Caspase-3, Caspase-9, and BAX), autophagy (Beclin-1, LC3A, LC3B, ATG7, LAMP1, and LAMP2), cell cycle (P21, P27, and P53), and DNA damage (COX2 and 8-OxoG) specific markers in oocytes matured under NAM treatment, compared to NAM-melatonin dual-treated and the untreated ones. In addition, the total cleavage and blastocyst development rate, as well as the total number of cells and the inner cell mass (ICM) per blastocyst, were reduced, while DNA fragmentation was induced, in the group of NAM sole treatment than NAM-melatonin cotreatment and control. Inspecting the underlying mechanisms behind NAM-associated toxicity revealed an increase in transcription pattern of NAM methylation (NNMT and AHCY) genes in NAM-treated oocytes while the opposite profile was observed upon melatonin supplementation. In conclusion, to our knowledge, this is the first study reporting that melatonin can protect oocytes and embryos from NAM-induced injury through its ROS-scavenging activity together with potential interaction with NAM methylation signaling.

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          Byproducts of normal mitochondrial metabolism and homeostasis include the buildup of potentially damaging levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Ca(2+), etc., which must be normalized. Evidence suggests that brief mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) openings play an important physiological role maintaining healthy mitochondria homeostasis. Adaptive and maladaptive responses to redox stress may involve mitochondrial channels such as mPTP and inner membrane anion channel (IMAC). Their activation causes intra- and intermitochondrial redox-environment changes leading to ROS release. This regenerative cycle of mitochondrial ROS formation and release was named ROS-induced ROS release (RIRR). Brief, reversible mPTP opening-associated ROS release apparently constitutes an adaptive housekeeping function by the timely release from mitochondria of accumulated potentially toxic levels of ROS (and Ca(2+)). At higher ROS levels, longer mPTP openings may release a ROS burst leading to destruction of mitochondria, and if propagated from mitochondrion to mitochondrion, of the cell itself. The destructive function of RIRR may serve a physiological role by removal of unwanted cells or damaged mitochondria, or cause the pathological elimination of vital and essential mitochondria and cells. The adaptive release of sufficient ROS into the vicinity of mitochondria may also activate local pools of redox-sensitive enzymes involved in protective signaling pathways that limit ischemic damage to mitochondria and cells in that area. Maladaptive mPTP- or IMAC-related RIRR may also be playing a role in aging. Because the mechanism of mitochondrial RIRR highlights the central role of mitochondria-formed ROS, we discuss all of the known ROS-producing sites (shown in vitro) and their relevance to the mitochondrial ROS production in vivo. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.
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            DNA damage-induced primordial follicle oocyte apoptosis and loss of fertility require TAp63-mediated induction of Puma and Noxa.

            Trp63, a transcription factor related to the tumor suppressor p53, is activated by diverse stimuli and can initiate a range of cellular responses. TAp63 is the predominant Trp53 family member in primordial follicle oocyte nuclei and is essential for their apoptosis triggered by DNA damage in vivo. After γ-irradiation, induction of the proapoptotic BH3-only members Puma and Noxa was observed in primordial follicle oocytes from WT and Trp53(-/-) mice but not in those from TAp63-deficient mice. Primordial follicle oocytes from mice lacking Puma or both Puma and Noxa were protected from γ-irradiation-induced apoptosis and, remarkably, could produce healthy offspring. Hence, PUMA and NOXA are critical for DNA damage-induced, TAp63-mediated primordial follicle oocyte apoptosis. Thus, blockade of PUMA may protect fertility during cancer therapy and prevent premature menopause, improving women's health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Slowing ageing by design: the rise of NAD+ and sirtuin-activating compounds

              The sirtuins (SIRT1-7) are a family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacylases with remarkable abilities to prevent diseases and even reverse aspects of ageing. Mice engineered to express additional copies of SIRT1 or SIRT6, or treated with sirtuin-activating compounds (STACs) such as resveratrol and SRT2104 or with NAD+ precursors, have improved organ function, physical endurance, disease resistance and longevity. Trials in non-human primates and in humans have indicated that STACs may be safe and effective in treating inflammatory and metabolic disorders, among others. These advances have demonstrated that it is possible to rationally design molecules that can alleviate multiple diseases and possibly extend lifespan in humans.

                Author and article information

                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
                8 April 2021
                : 2021
                1Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Four), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Republic of Korea
                2Department of Microbial Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo 12622, Egypt
                3Department of Therapeutic Chemistry, Division of Pharmaceutical and Drug Industries Research, National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo 12622, Egypt
                4The King Kong Corp. Ltd., Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Republic of Korea
                5Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Republic of Korea
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Ayman Mahmoud

                Copyright © 2021 Marwa El-Sheikh et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funded by: Korean Ministry of Education
                Funded by: Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs
                Award ID: 120066-01
                Funded by: Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
                Funded by: National Research Foundation of Korea
                Award ID: 2020R1A2C2006614
                Research Article

                Molecular medicine


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