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      Abnormal White Matter Integrity in Adolescents with Internet Addiction Disorder: A Tract-Based Spatial Statistics Study

      1 , 2 , 3 , 2 , 3 , 2 , * , 1 , *

      PLoS ONE

      Public Library of Science

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          Abstract

          Background

          Internet addiction disorder (IAD) is currently becoming a serious mental health issue around the globe. Previous studies regarding IAD were mainly focused on associated psychological examinations. However, there are few studies on brain structure and function about IAD. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate white matter integrity in adolescents with IAD.

          Methodology/Principal Findings

          Seventeen IAD subjects and sixteen healthy controls without IAD participated in this study. Whole brain voxel-wise analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) was performed by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to localize abnormal white matter regions between groups. TBSS demonstrated that IAD had significantly lower FA than controls throughout the brain, including the orbito-frontal white matter, corpus callosum, cingulum, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and corona radiation, internal and external capsules, while exhibiting no areas of higher FA. Volume-of-interest (VOI) analysis was used to detect changes of diffusivity indices in the regions showing FA abnormalities. In most VOIs, FA reductions were caused by an increase in radial diffusivity while no changes in axial diffusivity. Correlation analysis was performed to assess the relationship between FA and behavioral measures within the IAD group. Significantly negative correlations were found between FA values in the left genu of the corpus callosum and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, and between FA values in the left external capsule and the Young's Internet addiction scale.

          Conclusions

          Our findings suggest that IAD demonstrated widespread reductions of FA in major white matter pathways and such abnormal white matter structure may be linked to some behavioral impairments. In addition, white matter integrity may serve as a potential new treatment target and FA may be as a qualified biomarker to understand the underlying neural mechanisms of injury or to assess the effectiveness of specific early interventions in IAD.

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          Most cited references 71

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          The assessment and analysis of handedness: The Edinburgh inventory

           R.C. Oldfield (1971)
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            Tract-based spatial statistics: voxelwise analysis of multi-subject diffusion data.

            There has been much recent interest in using magnetic resonance diffusion imaging to provide information about anatomical connectivity in the brain, by measuring the anisotropic diffusion of water in white matter tracts. One of the measures most commonly derived from diffusion data is fractional anisotropy (FA), which quantifies how strongly directional the local tract structure is. Many imaging studies are starting to use FA images in voxelwise statistical analyses, in order to localise brain changes related to development, degeneration and disease. However, optimal analysis is compromised by the use of standard registration algorithms; there has not to date been a satisfactory solution to the question of how to align FA images from multiple subjects in a way that allows for valid conclusions to be drawn from the subsequent voxelwise analysis. Furthermore, the arbitrariness of the choice of spatial smoothing extent has not yet been resolved. In this paper, we present a new method that aims to solve these issues via (a) carefully tuned non-linear registration, followed by (b) projection onto an alignment-invariant tract representation (the "mean FA skeleton"). We refer to this new approach as Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS). TBSS aims to improve the sensitivity, objectivity and interpretability of analysis of multi-subject diffusion imaging studies. We describe TBSS in detail and present example TBSS results from several diffusion imaging studies.
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              Factor structure of the Barratt impulsiveness scale.

              The purpose of the present study was to revise the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale Version 10 (BIS-10), identify the factor structure of the items among normals, and compare their scores on the revised form (BIS-11) with psychiatric inpatients and prison inmates. The scale was administered to 412 college undergraduates, 248 psychiatric inpatients, and 73 male prison inmates. Exploratory principal components analysis of the items identified six primary factors and three second-order factors. The three second-order factors were labeled Attentional Impulsiveness, Motor Impulsiveness, and Nonplanning Impulsiveness. Two of the three second-order factors identified in the BIS-11 were consistent with those proposed by Barratt (1985), but no cognitive impulsiveness component was identified per se. The results of the present study suggest that the total score of the BIS-11 is an internally consistent measure of impulsiveness and has potential clinical utility for measuring impulsiveness among selected patient and inmate populations.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2012
                11 January 2012
                : 7
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Center for Magnetic Resonance, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, People's Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Radiology, RenJi Hospital, Jiao Tong University Medical School, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
                Université de Montréal, Canada
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: FL YZ YD JX HL. Performed the experiments: YZ LQ ZZ. Analyzed the data: FL HL. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: YZ YD FL. Wrote the paper: FL HL.

                Article
                PONE-D-11-19481
                10.1371/journal.pone.0030253
                3256221
                22253926
                Lin et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                Page count
                Pages: 10
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology
                Neuroscience
                Medicine
                Anatomy and Physiology
                Neurological System
                Global Health
                Radiology
                Diagnostic Radiology

                Uncategorized

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