Predicting the clinical behavior of prostate carcinoma can be difficult; one approach is to identify molecular prognostic markers. We evaluated proliferative rate (MIB-1 antibody) and expression of bcl-2, p53, and retinoblastoma (pRB) proteins, which have cell cycle-related functions, in 208 consecutive radical prostatectomy specimens. Values were correlated with histopathologic parameters (Gleason tumor score, tumor amount, capsule invasion, and involvement of surgical margins, seminal vesicles, or lymph nodes) and with recurrence-free survival (4-year median follow-up). A high MIB-1 proliferative rate was associated with all of the measured histopathologic parameters, p53 overexpression with tumor amount, and pRB expression with positive lymph nodes. pRB and p53 expression levels were not associated with differences in recurrence-free survival. A high MIB-1 proliferative rate and bcl-2 positivity were associated with increased recurrence, both considered individually, and also independently and additively when examined together and with the most predictive histopathologic factors (Gleason tumor score and seminal vesicle involvement). MIB-1 proliferative rate and bcl-2 positivity may prove to be useful markers for poor prognosis in prostate carcinoma.