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      Characterization of free radical-induced base damage in DNA at biologically relevant levels.

      Analytical Biochemistry

      DNA, radiation effects, DNA Repair, Formates, Free Radicals, Gamma Rays, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, methods, Hydrolysis, Hydroxides, Hydroxyl Radical, Trimethylsilyl Compounds, analysis

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          Abstract

          DNA damage induced by oxygen radicals, e.g., hydroxyl radicals generated in living cells either by cellular metabolism or external agents such as ionizing radiations, appears to play an important role in mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and aging. Elucidation of the chemical nature of such DNA lesions at biologically significant quantities is required for the assessment of their biological consequences and repair. For this purpose, a sensitive method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with the selected-ion-monitoring technique (GC-MS/SIM) was developed in the present work. DNA was exposed to hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen atoms produced by ionizing radiation in N2O-saturated aqueous solution. DNA samples were subsequently hydrolyzed with formic acid, trimethylsilylated, and analyzed by GC-MS/SIM. Characteristic ions from previously known mass spectra of DNA base products as their trimethylsilyl derivatives were recorded and the area counts of each ion were integrated. From these acquired data, a partial mass spectrum of each product was generated and then compared with those of authentic materials. This technique permitted the detection and characterization of a large number of free radical-induced based products of DNA, i.e., 5,6-dihydrothymine, 5-hydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymine, 5-hydroxymethyluracil, 5-hydroxyuracil, 5-hydroxycytosine, thymine glycol, 4,6-diamino-5-formamidopyrimidine, 8-hydroxyadenine, 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine, and 8-hydroxyguanine, simultaneously in a single sample after radiation doses from 0.1 to 10 Gy. Detectable amounts of the base products were found to be as low as approximately 10 fmol per injection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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          3017148

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