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      Three-Dimensional Kinematic Motion of the Craniocervical Junction of Chihuahuas and Labrador Retrievers


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          All vertebrate species have a distinct morphology and movement pattern, which reflect the adaption of the animal to its habitat. Yet, our knowledge of motion patterns of the craniocervical junction of dogs is very limited. The aim of this prospective study is to perform a detailed analysis and description of three-dimensional craniocervical motion during locomotion in clinically sound Chihuahuas and Labrador retrievers. This study presents the first in vivo recorded motions of the craniocervical junction of clinically sound Chihuahuas ( n = 8) and clinically sound Labrador retrievers ( n = 3) using biplanar fluoroscopy. Scientific rotoscoping was used to reconstruct three-dimensional kinematics during locomotion. The same basic motion patterns were found in Chihuahuas and Labrador retrievers during walking. Sagittal, lateral, and axial rotation could be observed in both the atlantoaxial and the atlantooccipital joints during head motion and locomotion. Lateral and axial rotation occurred as a coupled motion pattern. The amplitudes of axial and lateral rotation of the total upper cervical motion and the atlantoaxial joint were higher in Labrador retrievers than in Chihuahuas. The range of motion (ROM) maxima were 20°, 26°, and 24° in the sagittal, lateral, and axial planes, respectively, of the atlantoaxial joint. ROM maxima of 30°, 16°, and 18° in the sagittal, lateral, and axial planes, respectively, were found at the atlantooccipital joint. The average absolute sagittal rotation of the atlas was slightly higher in Chihuahuas (between 9.1 ± 6.8° and 18.7 ± 9.9°) as compared with that of Labrador retrievers (between 5.7 ± 4.6° and 14.5 ± 2.6°), which corresponds to the more acute angle of the atlas in Chihuahuas. Individual differences for example, varying in amplitude or time of occurrence are reported.

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          Most cited references 32

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          The spring-mass model for running and hopping.

           R Blickhan (1988)
          A simple spring-mass model consisting of a massless spring attached to a point mass describes the interdependency of mechanical parameters characterizing running and hopping of humans as a function of speed. The bouncing mechanism itself results in a confinement of the free parameter space where solutions can be found. In particular, bouncing frequency and vertical displacement are closely related. Only a few parameters, such as the vector of the specific landing velocity and the specific leg length, are sufficient to determine the point of operation of the system. There are more physiological constraints than independent parameters. As constraints limit the parameter space where hopping is possible, they must be tuned to each other in order to allow for hopping at all. Within the range of physiologically possible hopping frequencies, a human hopper selects a frequency where the largest amount of energy can be delivered and still be stored elastically. During running and hopping animals use flat angles of the landing velocity resulting in maximum contact length. In this situation ground reaction force is proportional to specific contact time and total displacement is proportional to the square of the step duration. Contact time and hopping frequency are not simply determined by the natural frequency of the spring-mass system, but are influenced largely by the vector of the landing velocity. Differences in the aerial phase or in the angle of the landing velocity result in the different kinematic and dynamic patterns observed during running and hopping. Despite these differences, the model predicts the mass specific energy fluctuations of the center of mass per distance to be similar for runners and hoppers and similar to empirical data obtained for animals of various size.
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            Hip structure and locomotion in ambulatory and cursorial carnivores

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              Scientific rotoscoping: a morphology-based method of 3-D motion analysis and visualization.

              Three-dimensional skeletal movement is often impossible to accurately quantify from external markers. X-ray imaging more directly visualizes moving bones, but extracting 3-D kinematic data is notoriously difficult from a single perspective. Stereophotogrammetry is extremely powerful if bi-planar fluoroscopy is available, yet implantation of three radio-opaque markers in each segment of interest may be impractical. Herein we introduce scientific rotoscoping (SR), a new method of motion analysis that uses articulated bone models to simultaneously animate and quantify moving skeletons without markers. The three-step process is described using examples from our work on pigeon flight and alligator walking. First, the experimental scene is reconstructed in 3-D using commercial animation software so that frames of undistorted fluoroscopic and standard video can be viewed in their correct spatial context through calibrated virtual cameras. Second, polygonal models of relevant bones are created from CT or laser scans and rearticulated into a hierarchical marionette controlled by virtual joints. Third, the marionette is registered to video images by adjusting each of its degrees of freedom over a sequence of frames. SR outputs high-resolution 3-D kinematic data for multiple, unmarked bones and anatomically accurate animations that can be rendered from any perspective. Rather than generating moving stick figures abstracted from the coordinates of independent surface points, SR is a morphology-based method of motion analysis deeply rooted in osteological and arthrological data.

                Author and article information

                Front Vet Sci
                Front Vet Sci
                Front. Vet. Sci.
                Frontiers in Veterinary Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                20 August 2021
                : 8
                [1] 1Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Small Animal Clinic—Surgery, Justus-Liebig-University , Giessen, Germany
                [2] 2Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Small Animal Clinic—Neurosurgery, Neuroradiology and Clinical Neurology, Justus-Liebig-University , Giessen, Germany
                [3] 3Institute of Zoology and Evolutionary Research, Friedrich-Schiller-University , Jena, Germany
                Author notes

                Edited by: Denis J. Marcellin-Little, University of California, Davis, United States

                Reviewed by: Shinichi Kanazono, Veterinary Specialists and Emergency Center, Japan; Angela Fadda, Langford Vets Small Animal Referral Hospital, United Kingdom

                *Correspondence: Lisa Schikowski lisa.schikowski@ 123456googlemail.com

                This article was submitted to Veterinary Neurology and Neurosurgery, a section of the journal Frontiers in Veterinary Science

                Copyright © 2021 Schikowski, Eley, Kelleners, Schmidt and Fischer.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 32, Pages: 10, Words: 7394
                Veterinary Science
                Original Research


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