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      Neuropeptides in asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis


      Respiratory Research

      BioMed Central

      Neuropeptides, Lung diseases, Mucus, Cystic fibrosis, Asthma, COPD

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          The nervous system mediates key airway protective behaviors, including cough, mucus secretion, and airway smooth muscle contraction. Thus, its involvement and potential involvement in several airway diseases has become increasingly recognized. In the current review, we focus on the contribution of select neuropeptides in three distinct airway diseases: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis. We present data on some well-studied neuropeptides, as well as call attention to a few that have not received much consideration. Because mucus hypersecretion and mucus obstruction are common features of many airway diseases, we place special emphasis on the contribution of neuropeptides to mucus secretion. Finally, we highlight evidence implicating involvement of neuropeptides in mucus phenotypes in asthma, COPD and cystic fibrosis, as well as bring to light knowledge that is still lacking in the field.

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          Most cited references 240

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          Interleukin-13: central mediator of allergic asthma.

          The worldwide incidence, morbidity, and mortality of allergic asthma are increasing. The pathophysiological features of allergic asthma are thought to result from the aberrant expansion of CD4(+) T cells producing the type 2 cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-5, although a necessary role for these cytokines in allergic asthma has not been demonstrable. The type 2 cytokine IL-13, which shares a receptor component and signaling pathways with IL-4, was found to be necessary and sufficient for the expression of allergic asthma. IL-13 induces the pathophysiological features of asthma in a manner that is independent of immunoglobulin E and eosinophils. Thus, IL-13 is critical to allergen-induced asthma but operates through mechanisms other than those that are classically implicated in allergic responses.
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            Identification of the cystic fibrosis gene: chromosome walking and jumping.

            An understanding of the basic defect in the inherited disorder cystic fibrosis requires cloning of the cystic fibrosis gene and definition of its protein product. In the absence of direct functional information, chromosomal map position is a guide for locating the gene. Chromosome walking and jumping and complementary DNA hybridization were used to isolate DNA sequences, encompassing more than 500,000 base pairs, from the cystic fibrosis region on the long arm of human chromosome 7. Several transcribed sequences and conserved segments were identified in this cloned region. One of these corresponds to the cystic fibrosis gene and spans approximately 250,000 base pairs of genomic DNA.
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              Disruption of the CFTR gene produces a model of cystic fibrosis in newborn pigs.

              Almost two decades after CFTR was identified as the gene responsible for cystic fibrosis (CF), we still lack answers to many questions about the pathogenesis of the disease, and it remains incurable. Mice with a disrupted CFTR gene have greatly facilitated CF studies, but the mutant mice do not develop the characteristic manifestations of human CF, including abnormalities of the pancreas, lung, intestine, liver, and other organs. Because pigs share many anatomical and physiological features with humans, we generated pigs with a targeted disruption of both CFTR alleles. Newborn pigs lacking CFTR exhibited defective chloride transport and developed meconium ileus, exocrine pancreatic destruction, and focal biliary cirrhosis, replicating abnormalities seen in newborn humans with CF. The pig model may provide opportunities to address persistent questions about CF pathogenesis and accelerate discovery of strategies for prevention and treatment.

                Author and article information

                352 294 4059 , leahreznikov@ufl.edu
                Respir Res
                Respir. Res
                Respiratory Research
                BioMed Central (London )
                6 August 2018
                6 August 2018
                : 19
                ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8091, GRID grid.15276.37, Department of Physiological Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, , University of Florida, ; 1333 Center Drive, PO Box 100144, Gainesville, FL 32610 USA
                © The Author(s). 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000050, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute;
                Award ID: R00HL119560-03
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000009, Foundation for the National Institutes of Health;
                Award ID: 10T2TR001983-01
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Respiratory medicine

                neuropeptides, copd, asthma, cystic fibrosis, mucus, lung diseases


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