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      Involvement of Ethylene in the Latex Metabolism and Tapping Panel Dryness of Hevea brasiliensis


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          Ethephon, an ethylene releaser, is used to stimulate latex production in Hevea brasiliensis. Ethylene induces many functions in latex cells including the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The accumulation of ROS is responsible for the coagulation of rubber particles in latex cells, resulting in the partial or complete stoppage of latex flow. This study set out to assess biochemical and histological changes as well as changes in gene expression in latex and phloem tissues from trees grown under various harvesting systems. The Tapping Panel Dryness (TPD) susceptibility of Hevea clones was found to be related to some biochemical parameters, such as low sucrose and high inorganic phosphorus contents. A high tapping frequency and ethephon stimulation induced early TPD occurrence in a high latex metabolism clone and late occurrence in a low latex metabolism clone. TPD-affected trees had smaller number of laticifer vessels compared to healthy trees, suggesting a modification of cambial activity. The differential transcript abundance was observed for twenty-seven candidate genes related to TPD occurrence in latex and phloem tissues for ROS-scavenging, ethylene biosynthesis and signalling genes. The predicted function for some Ethylene Response Factor genes suggested that these candidate genes should play an important role in regulating susceptibility to TPD.

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          Oxygen sensing in plants is mediated by an N-end rule pathway for protein destabilization.

          The majority of eukaryotic organisms rely on molecular oxygen for respiratory energy production. When the supply of oxygen is compromised, a variety of acclimation responses are activated to reduce the detrimental effects of energy depletion. Various oxygen-sensing mechanisms have been described that are thought to trigger these responses, but they each seem to be kingdom specific and no sensing mechanism has been identified in plants until now. Here we show that one branch of the ubiquitin-dependent N-end rule pathway for protein degradation, which is active in both mammals and plants, functions as an oxygen-sensing mechanism in Arabidopsis thaliana. We identified a conserved amino-terminal amino acid sequence of the ethylene response factor (ERF)-transcription factor RAP2.12 to be dedicated to an oxygen-dependent sequence of post-translational modifications, which ultimately lead to degradation of RAP2.12 under aerobic conditions. When the oxygen concentration is low-as during flooding-RAP2.12 is released from the plasma membrane and accumulates in the nucleus to activate gene expression for hypoxia acclimation. Our discovery of an oxygen-sensing mechanism opens up new possibilities for improving flooding tolerance in crops. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved
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            De novo assembly and characterization of bark transcriptome using Illumina sequencing and development of EST-SSR markers in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.)

            Background In rubber tree, bark is one of important agricultural and biological organs. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the bark formation and development in rubber tree remains largely unknown, which is at least partially due to lack of bark transcriptomic and genomic information. Therefore, it is necessary to carried out high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of rubber tree bark to generate enormous transcript sequences for the functional characterization and molecular marker development. Results In this study, more than 30 million sequencing reads were generated using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. In total, 22,756 unigenes with an average length of 485 bp were obtained with de novo assembly. The similarity search indicated that 16,520 and 12,558 unigenes showed significant similarities to known proteins from NCBI non-redundant and Swissprot protein databases, respectively. Among these annotated unigenes, 6,867 and 5,559 unigenes were separately assigned to Gene Ontology (GO) and Clusters of Orthologous Group (COG). When 22,756 unigenes searched against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway (KEGG) database, 12,097 unigenes were assigned to 5 main categories including 123 KEGG pathways. Among the main KEGG categories, metabolism was the biggest category (9,043, 74.75%), suggesting the active metabolic processes in rubber tree bark. In addition, a total of 39,257 EST-SSRs were identified from 22,756 unigenes, and the characterizations of EST-SSRs were further analyzed in rubber tree. 110 potential marker sites were randomly selected to validate the assembly quality and develop EST-SSR markers. Among 13 Hevea germplasms, PCR success rate and polymorphism rate of 110 markers were separately 96.36% and 55.45% in this study. Conclusion By assembling and analyzing de novo transcriptome sequencing data, we reported the comprehensive functional characterization of rubber tree bark. This research generated a substantial fraction of rubber tree transcriptome sequences, which were very useful resources for gene annotation and discovery, molecular markers development, genome assembly and annotation, and microarrays development in rubber tree. The EST-SSR markers identified and developed in this study will facilitate marker-assisted selection breeding in rubber tree. Moreover, this study also supported that transcriptome analysis based on Illumina paired-end sequencing is a powerful tool for transcriptome characterization and molecular marker development in non-model species, especially those with large and complex genomes.
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              Regulation of ethylene gas biosynthesis by the Arabidopsis ETO1 protein.

              Ethylene gas is used as a hormone by plants, in which it acts as a critical growth regulator. Its synthesis is also rapidly evoked in response to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. The Arabidopsis ethylene-overproducer mutants eto2 and eto3 have previously been identified as having mutations in two genes, ACS5 and ACS9, respectively; these encode isozymes of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS), which catalyse the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis. Here we report that another ethylene-overproducer mutation, eto1, is in a gene that negatively regulates ACS activity and ethylene production. The ETO1 protein directly interacts with and inhibits the enzyme activity of full-length ACS5 but not of a truncated form of the enzyme, resulting in a marked accumulation of ACS5 protein and ethylene. Overexpression of ETO1 inhibited induction of ethylene production by the plant growth regulator cytokinin, and promoted ACS5 degradation by a proteasome-dependent pathway. ETO1 also interacts with CUL3, a constituent of ubiquitin ligase complexes in which we propose that ETO1 serves as a substrate-specific adaptor protein. ETO1 thus has a dual mechanism, inhibiting ACS enzyme activity and targeting it for protein degradation. This permits rapid modulation of the concentration of ethylene.

                Author and article information

                Role: Academic Editor
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                04 August 2015
                August 2015
                : 16
                : 8
                : 17885-17908
                [1 ]Centre International de Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, Unité Mixte de Recherche Amélioration Génétique & Adaptation des Plantes Méditerranéennes et Tropicales, F-34398 Montpellier, France; E-Mails: rizaputranto@ 123456iribb.org (R.-A.P.); maryannick.rio@ 123456cirad.fr (M.R.); julie.leclercq@ 123456cirad.fr (J.L.); nuch1505@ 123456yahoo.com (P.P.); christine.sanier@ 123456cirad.fr (C.S.); julien_pirrello@ 123456yahoo.fr (J.P.)
                [2 ]Indonesian Research Institute for Biotechnology and Bioindustry, Bogor 16128, Indonesia
                [3 ]Indonesia Rubber Research Institute, Sembawa Research Centre, Palembang 30001, Indonesia; E-Mails: eva_herlinawati@ 123456yahoo.com (E.H.); fetrina_oktavia@ 123456yahoo.com (F.O.)
                [4 ]Rubber Research Institute of Thailand, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
                [5 ]Centre International de Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, Unité de Recherche Performance des Systèmes de Culture des Plantes Pérennes, F-34398 Montpellier, France; E-Mail: eric.gohet@ 123456cirad.fr
                [6 ]Indonesia Rubber Research Institute, Bogor 16151, Indonesia
                Author notes

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                [* ]Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mails: pascal.montoro@ 123456cirad.fr (P.M.); kuswhd@ 123456yahoo.com (K.); Tel.: +33-0-467-615-682 (P.M.); +62-0251-831-9817 (K.); Fax: +33-0-467-615-605 (P.M.); +62-0251-832-4047 (K.).
                © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).


                Molecular biology
                abiotic stress,antioxidant,ethephon,ethylene response factor,oxidative stress,rubber,transcription factor


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